Posts by BillHagestad:

    China’s Characteristics of Informationized War

    February 9th, 2017

    By Bill Hagestad II.


    Information warfare refers to information warfare, information-based and information-based weaponry as the main means of warfare and combat, with system integration and information control as the leading, in the full-dimensional space through precision strike, real-time control, information Defense and other means of paralysis and deterrence operations. Compared with the traditional forms of war, such as mechanized warfare, information warfare has the following six characteristics.

    War Tools – Information Domination

    War tools determine the form of war, what kind of war tools, there will be what kind of war. Information age of the main tools of war weapons and equipment information, information technology weapons and equipment is the main feature of the weapons and equipment to achieve the information, intelligence and integration.

    Energy structure The energy structure and the energy release mode are the basic factors that determine the weapon killing mechanism. From the point of view of energy components, the war energy from the traditional physical, chemical energy, electrical energy, electromagnetic energy, mechanical energy, nuclear energy and other physical energy into intelligent. Intelligence is the dominant energy in the information warfare, which is produced by the control of other physical energy. In the information war, the power, platform and weapon of the mechanical age still play an important role, but the structure of energy release has changed, the electronic information equipment has been changed from auxiliary and support equipment to dominant equipment, and penetrated and integrated through system To the power, platform, weapons to the energy and energy release time, manner, quantity, proportion, etc. to achieve precise control, so as to achieve the minimum input, the highest efficiency of the purpose.

    Performance standards Mechanized war mainly emphasizes the accumulation of the number and size, information warfare emphasizes the quality of the effectiveness of control. Traditional wars are mainly achieved through firepower destruction to achieve the purpose of destruction. In information warfare, information technology can effectively control the energy release efficiency in addition to the fusion of many different energy and weapon equipment. The result of control is more accurate and can obtain great operational effect through less energy release . Therefore, the effectiveness of the combat damage, no longer stressed how much the amount of charge, but to highlight the principle of precision and effective. Accurate and efficient metrics are cost-effective. Efficient cost ratio refers to less investment in the war, high efficiency, usually up to 1:10 or more. In order to achieve this goal, we must improve the accuracy of weapons hit.

    The power of war – the whole cohesion

    System combat information warfare, as the main weapon equipment C⁴ SRL system, information warfare equipment, precision-guided weapons and information warfare platform, through the global information grid for seamless connectivity, will form a full-dimensional, all-day, all-weather Integration, real-time combat system. In such a system of warfare, the notion of greed, perfection and pursuit of high in traditional warfare will not make any sense, since variety, size, and performance are no longer the key elements for improving operational effectiveness. System integration and horizontal integration become The most critical element. No matter how many types of weapons and equipment, large scale, performance, no matter how good, if not incorporated into the system, you can not play a role in the battlefield, not only can not form combat effectiveness, but will become a good fight. Information-based battlefield is one of the battlefield of system confrontation, with the perfect information-based combat system, one side can control the means of warfare, the flexibility to select the target and control the process and rhythm of war; there is no corresponding information-based combat system party, the rudderless, scattered, But no soul, and thus difficult to form combat effectiveness.

    Power Cohesion Mechanized war, the main force of war for the material forces. In information warfare, intelligence and knowledge are at the core and leading position of power cohesion, and the cohesion of war forces relies on information control. From the point of view of the elements of power, information technology and equipment become the dominant factor, the traditional mechanized combat platform status declined. Strength of the cohesion, must be in control of the advantages of control, especially in the capture and control of information superiority and space advantage under the premise of the premise. Only in this way can we ensure that at the right time, the required power to accurately adjust and maneuver to the exact location and direction of the target precision strike. In the information war, command art and military strategy are still very important, but the emphasis is on two aspects: one is the strategic layout of the two sides of war, the battle of wits and strategic deception; the second is the tactical level of command and control automation .

    War time and space – one dimension

    Time to accelerate information warfare, the ballistic missile speed of Mach 15, tactical missile speed of Mach 3-5, however, faster than this speed of light and electromagnetic wave velocity, 300,000 kilometers per second, WYSIWYG. As long as the eye to see the target, this goal means that immediately destroyed.

    Space fusion cold weapons war and war of hot weapons, are in a single-dimensional space within the plane of the war. Mechanized war, and constantly to the air, sea, underwater, space and electromagnetic space expansion. Information warfare still needs to be separately controlled. The branches of the armed forces can continue to dominate their traditional space of warfare. The difference is that standards, interconnection, interoperation and interoperability must be unified among the elements of time, space and power. The formation of a fusion of the system. After the establishment of such a horizontal integration network, the operational space separated from each other by land, sea, sky and sky will become a full-dimensional combat space. In this full-dimensional space, the battlefield is mobile, the information is real- Space and power and other elements are integrated, the use of force will be very flexible and adjustable, controllable.

    Implementation of War – Precise Control

    Full spectrum control Traditional wars, the implementation of the war mainly rely on operational command and means of combat use. In the information war, when the global information grid is established, the full-dimensional space presents an integrated mode. In this space, the traditional concept of battlefield will no longer exist, depending on the specific battlefield and specific arms and services. The way will naturally die. By then, the precise control will be the essence of information warfare. Precision control is mainly full spectrum control warfare, focusing on strategic information warfare and battlefield information warfare, the purpose is to full-dimensional space, full spectrum information, all combat forces and war resources for effective control. Control of the results of two: for one’s own, through the system integration to double the power, the combat effectiveness of the exponential increase; the enemy, by controlling it in paralysis, the troops lost command because of the mob, military weapons lost Space will not be mobile, lost time can only miss the opportunity, passive beaten. In this case, even with the power, has also been divided, disintegrated, it is difficult to play an effective role.

    Precision Strike Accurate combat from quantitative to qualitative change has gone through more than half a century, across three historical stages. First, from the close fight to the fire damage. Second, from surface destruction to the point of destruction. The use of precision-guided weapons in war was raised from 0.2 per cent in the Vietnam War to 8 per cent in the Gulf War to 70 per cent of the war in Iraq. Third, from the precise destruction to the real-time combat. The use of precision-guided weapons in the Iraq war, already have three capabilities: First, self-attack capability. After launch regardless, automatically find and destroy the target. Second, real-time attack capability. From the discovery of targets to achieve the goal of integration, weapons, reaction time tends to real-time. Third, the ability to launch outside the area. Combat platform can be used away from the threat zone weapons, both accurate targets, but also to achieve self-protection.

    War protection – multi-dimensional focus

    Accurate protection from the security object point of view, the cold war of weapons is the main object of war protection. Thermal weapons and mechanized warfare, combat platforms and guns and ammunition and other weapons become the main object of protection. Information warfare focuses on the comprehensive protection of intelligence, knowledge, information and network. On this basis, it strengthens the integration and control of the guarantee elements. As information-based weaponry and mechanized weaponry are integrated, most of the elements of mechanized warfare will continue to exist, but must be transformed with information-based concepts, networks, and software so that all elements of security are integrated into the operational system To achieve the purpose of effective control and accurate protection.

    Multi-dimensional protection In the traditional war, the battlefield construction and war mobilization is an important part of the forces of war. In the information warfare full-dimensional security situation, the battlefield construction will have more dual-use characteristics, and usually and wartime must achieve rapid conversion. With the rapid reduction of the duration of the war, the traditional mode of war mobilization must be changed, emphasizing rapid mobilization in time, focusing on information mobilization in the content, highlighting pre-stored pre-set method to meet the needs of war for fast security.

    Strength of information-based war, more emphasis on quality performance, the quality of the performance of knowledge, performance for the control, the number of scale is still important, but there will be knowledge, can control the number and size. War is no longer a military patent, to the computer and network as the core of military equipment is no longer exclusive to the military, the most advanced technology may be the first to use in civilian equipment. Therefore, the protection of the performance of information security, this nature is difficult to distinguish between the protection of military or civilian use. Therefore, the military-specific security began to the development of social security, professional clear, clear division of labor began to mechanization of professional fuzzy, system integration of information security to promote the actual strength of the weapons used to combat less and less, more and more Fine, and software design, network control, information resources, equipment maintenance and other security forces increased significantly, “teeth” more and more sharp, “tail” more and more stout.

    Winning the war – man – machine

    Human-machine integrated information war, human intelligence and weapons performance integration, to give weapons to wisdom and spirituality. Information-based weapons are no longer silly black and thick machine components, but with artificial intelligence, will think, can determine, can automatically detect, identify and combat targets of the robot, “Tomahawk” cruise missiles, JDAM satellite guided bombs and so on Is such a robot weapon. People’s superb intelligence, command art can be integrated into the weapons system in advance, but also in the process of combat through the real-time control of weapons to improve its combat effectiveness. This kind of intelligent weapons and mechanized weapons and equipment of the biggest difference is the enhanced specificity. The future war needs higher quality talent, no knowledge, no culture of the army is stupid army, stupid army is unable to win the information war.

    Automatic control of the global information grid is completed, the tactical level in the battle will be automated real-time command, manual intervention, while trying to dry side of the command pattern is less and less. Command art and military strategy in a large extent reflected in the pre-war operations and strategic battle of war, and even be integrated into the human-computer interaction system, expert knowledge base systems and weapons to the intelligent guidance system to go. Therefore, the command level is less and less, the command efficiency is higher and higher, showing real-time, flat, integrated features. Strategic commanders direct command to the individual, single-ship, stand-alone phenomenon is more and more common, strategic battle will become the main battle of information warfare style.

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    China’s Military, Information Warfare & Interpretation of the PLA’s Strategic Support Units

    March 16th, 2016



    By Bill Hagestad II.


    December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army’s governing bodies, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in August Building.The Army is the armed forces of our party was first built, which needless to say, the military rocket is an upgraded version of the Second Artillery Corps, reflects the strategic support great power status, do not need to deny self, then this strategy support troops may be too mysterious.

    Because at the inaugural meeting, the CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping to the Army, rocket forces, strategic support units and granted the flag caused precepts. This means that the strategic support units, and the People’s Liberation Army is the Army, Navy, Air Force, Army rocket same level independent military services. And with respect to the Army’s “name” and the Second Artillery Rocket Army “named” upgrade, strategic support since the Second Artillery Force of the PLA has become established, the birth of the only new military services. From the point of view of modern high-tech local wars, armed forces and strategic nuclear strike force contains basically the main mode of combat and battlefield environment, then this strategy support troops, and what capability, turned out to be able to come to the fore?

    Strategic support troops inaugural meeting, President Xi strategic support units carried out the following qualitative: strategic support units is to maintain national security of new combat forces is an important growth point of our military combat capability of quality. Strategic support units to adhere to all officers and soldiers system integration, civil-military integration, and strive to achieve leapfrog development in key areas, starting point to promote high standards of combat forces to accelerate the development of new, integrated development, strive to build a strong modernization strategy support units.


    There are a few key words: new combat forces, combat new quality capability, system integration, civil-military integration, key areas.

    Xinhua News Agency news show, strategic support unit’s first commander was Gaojin. Network data shows he originally from Jiangsu Province, of the Jingjiang people. 1985 Gao-Jin enters the PLA Second Artillery Command College. July 2006, promoted to the rank of major general, served as the PLA Second Artillery Force 52 base commander. In December 2011, he served as chief of staff of the PLA Second Artillery Force. August 2013, promoted to the rank of lieutenant.In July 2014, he was transferred to the Assistant Chief of Staff. In December 2014, he was promoted to president of Academy of Military Sciences, and replace older than 1 year old deputy chief of staff YiXiaoguang will become the youngest Chinese Military general officer, Military Academy is the youngest president in history.

    On November 2, 2015,Gaojin became a strategic support troops commander in the first 60 days, “Liberation Army Daily” published a paper entitled “deepen defense and military reform is the only way the army strong army Hing,” the signed article . Article specifically mentioned: the world’s new military revolution is an important component of the key variables in the world today and the great development and changes and major adjustments, the large its speed, scope, degree of depth, the impact of the unprecedented. Following another face of this epoch-making revolution in military weapon cold, hot weapons, mechanized military revolution after the world’s major countries competing to adjust its military strategy, stepping up military transformation, in order to reshape the military information as the core morphology, reconstruction of military force system. In the form of war from mechanization to informationization of qualitative leap, under conditions of nuclear deterrence armed Skynet electrical integration of joint operations is increasingly becoming a reality, from the battlefield to the traditional space high, deep, very far from the physical space and virtual space to expand non symmetric, non-contact, non-line combat style more mature, battle to seize control of information has become a comprehensive control over the core mechanism of winning the war profoundly changed.

    Armed Skynet electrical integration joint commander Gaojin said nuclear deterrence combat conditions, where “day”, it never refers to the Army’s rocket missile, but in outer space, “net” is in cyberspace, “power” is the electromagnetic space. Modern high-tech local wars, armed forces military remains the key to victory, but also the main battleground in the sea and air space, but a typical characteristic of information warfare is asymmetrical, non-contact, non-line operations, and achieve the key to this transformation is in outer space, cyberspace and electromagnetic space “three special battlefield.” Due to the large electromagnetic space and physical isolation from the impact, typically have only tactical significance. Whereas outer space and cyberspace, it is high, deep, very far from ubiquitous in the physical space and virtual space, which has a strategic significance. On both the battlefield flame, not flesh and blood flying, but dangerous worse than conventional battlefield, troops could have a corresponding force building and sound command response agencies, the result will be a conventional battlefield the outcome must have an important and even qualitative impact.

    This is the meaning of China’s “strategic support” forces. Reasoning logically, Chinese strategic support units, it may be in outer space and cyberspace “new combat forces” for giving our military the “new mass combat capability” new growth point.

    In order to achieve this capability “strategic support” of military power have set up competing celestial army (troops outer space) and Cyber ​​Army (network warfare units). US troops in outer space, from the “Decree” system, troops belonging to the armed forces, including missile and space defense forces, the Navy’s carrier-based anti-missile forces, the Air Force C4ISR and the use of space satellites Army troops, and in the “military orders on “system, these forces are unified owned by the US strategic command headquarters. In 2009, under the US Strategic Command has established a new subordinate command, namely Network Warfare Command, the unified command of the US Armed Corps network warfare units.

    Russia in December 2011 set up air and space defense troops, but it was such a force has only arms and the operational level status, the military power of the central air and space defense forces only jurisdiction, but can not solve Russia’s air defense force under unified command of proposal question. August 1, 2015, the Russian air force and air defense forces, air defense forces merged to form the air and space forces. Which it is now Russia has no air force in the traditional sense. Air and space defense forces will remain the unified command of the Russian General Staff, and the direct leadership of the day will be empty Army General Headquarters. Aerospace duty Army is responsible for unified management of air, anti-aircraft and anti-missile forces, and Russian satellite orbit Cluster spacecraft launch and management. In addition, the missile attack warning systems and space surveillance systems within the scope of the jurisdiction of military air and space.

    From the public point of view, so far Russia has not yet set up as a dedicated network warfare units like the US, but does not have a special unified command structure.

    Advances in technology, to make human use of outer space and cyberspace, to achieve the purpose of the military, but that does not mean big opportunities for state-owned, have the ability and courage to break the old military system, to adapt to the new form of war requirements. How to build a national unified command and outer space and cyberspace defense system. Russia and the United States gave us a lot of lessons.

    The United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War hegemony, had spent heavily in the development of military platforms and a lot of space weapons systems, but the US military space systems, almost all rests in the hands of the Air Force, and the Soviet Union established the Strategic Rocket Forces troops. Visible, the US military is relying on the armed services to build space defense system, and the former Soviet Union is the establishment of a new military services.

    At the end of the Cold War, the Russian strategic rocket forces in the original, based on an independent arms to draw a military space forces. March 2011, the Russian military space forces again, based on the formation of air and space defense troops.However, under the oppression of US nuclear weapons, global strike, anti-missile and other space powers, Russia and aerospace field is still fragmented, air and space attack threats it faces increasingly severe pain, while there is no uniform national air and space defense command structure . To safeguard the security of Russian aerospace field, create a better organizational and technical conditions for the implementation of the strategic future of air and space battles, the Russians in August 2015 set up air and space forces. But have to say is that the so-called empty space forces, the Russian equivalent of the US back to the old way, both relying on a unified air defense system to re-member space. This shows that, although Russia considers itself aerospace suffered a big threat, but the economic and technological strength, has been insufficient to support the establishment of a development, a separate military services promising, but only on the basis of the Air Force “linger.”

    Russian frustration with respect to the United States the development of air and space power is somewhat intentional play balance. The main part of the US Air Force air and space power, but in the “ABM” the US military in the 21st century the most important military operation of air and space, is the main operator of the US Army. In addition to the Navy’s “Aegis” missile defense system, the US military’s ground-based midcourse ABM, THAAD and Patriot anti-missile terminal, they are in control of the US Army, and a bunch of computer manipulation Army Air Force Base. Of course, whether it is armed soldiers, they eventually unify obey the command of US Strategic Command. But the US military services rely on different building space defense system, military services still reflects the inherent ideological balance thinking. This is because the US military very large volume, especially during the Cold War, which makes the US military services have funding research challenges of new technologies. And after 1986, the new Department of Defense Reorganization Act by the US military approach is from the perspective of the Joint Operations Command, the unified “collection” command the services of new combat forces to integrate. US Network Warfare Command was established, also a product of this approach.

    US military advantage of this approach is that the services Eight Immortals recount, the final choice can be optimized in the competition, but the disadvantage is that there is a huge waste, and the services in peacetime and do not belong to the system, it is difficult wartime unity of action. Although the US military reform highlights the joint operations of thought, but the individual military services after all are not the same culture, and outer space and cyberspace, the required military personnel are a small number of capable staff, if the artificial formation of different military services background, a bit “for the United the joint “deliberate sense.

    With respect to the United States and Russia, China’s military advantage is the revolution in military time scale, technological change and changes in the army almost simultaneously, the synchronization off, which makes the Chinese military have the opportunity to design the height from the top, in the lessons learned from military based on the construction of military services and more rational planning. While China’s national strength and technological level of rapid growth, but also to the construction of China’s new military services will not fall into the “make bricks without straw,” the fantasy embarrassment.

    In the field of anti-missile, the Chinese Defense Ministry has confirmed that the January 11, 2010, September 11, 2012, January 27, 2013, July 23, 2014 were carried out four ground-based midcourse missile interception technical tests. In the field of anti-satellite, the Chinese Foreign Ministry acknowledged in January 2007 anti-satellite missile test. Out media speculation in 2010 and 2013. China has conducted two tests of anti-satellite weapons, but did not get China confirmed. Platform in space, China from 2010 into more than 15 times the average annual emission intensive stage, reaching an average growth of around 20 the number of satellites, the establishment of a chain of day, the Beidou, high scores, and a series of remote sensing satellites family now the number of satellites in orbit over Russia, after the United States. In 2014 MH370 lost contact incident, China urgent mobilization of four models ocean, clouds, high, remote sensing, nearly 10 satellites to provide technical support for ground search and rescue operations.

    In network technology, China has become the world’s Internet and mobile Internet users than any other country, not only the birth of a group of like Alibaba, Tencent world-class Internet companies, such as Huawei also appeared in network technology giant. China in the next generation of Internet technology, has become one rule-makers. But while China has become the network against the most affected countries by the world, which means that China must consider the network security of the country from a strategic height, including the establishment of a unified defense force and a network system.

    There is no doubt that the new military revolution has proved that outer space is to promote our army “system integration” an important heights, and cyberspace is the embodiment of “civil-military integration,” a typical example of these two historic space is the Chinese army reform the key areas. China established strategic support units, will likely be the world’s first and do not rely on traditional military services to establish a unified military force in outer space and cyberspace defense system. This initiative is bound to leave an indelible mark in the world’s new military revolution.

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