Name: Donna

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Web Site: https://donnawelles.com/

Bio: Economist. Washington, DC.

Posts by DonnaWelles:

    Disputed Territories in the Caucasus Region

    October 13th, 2020 Dagestan, RF

    Nagorno-Karabakh is an enclave in Azerbaijan. There are reports about rocket weapons and missile defense systems in the Caucasus region. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are in the Caucasus region. Yerevan is the capital of Armenia, Baku is the capital of Azerbaijan, and Tbilisi is the capital of Georgia. North of the Caucasus region is Russia and to the south is Iran and Turkey.

    The Germans maintain airbases in Turkey. Turkey is the same region as Anatolia and Asia Minor. Abkhazia and South Ossetia are enclaves in Georgia. North Ossetia is in Russia. In 2008, the Russian military sent infantrymen and tanks across the border into Georgia. The soldiers were sent in the direction of Turkey and Abkhazia. Abkhazia is sometimes an Ottoman port.

    There might be weapons platforms in the Caucasus region that receive signals from Turkey. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and it is inland. Istanbul is a port near Greece and the Balkans. East Germany traded in East German mark and West Germany traded in West German mark. Today Bosnia trades in Bosnian convertible mark. Bosnia remains an important port for the German military.

    Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Gaza are ports in the Levant. Haifa is near the Golan Heights and Damascus. There have been tank battles in the Levant. It is possible the East Germans sent tanks to Tel Aviv from Lubeck. Lubeck is a port near Poland and the Gulf of Danzig. There might be tank driving schools near Tel Aviv.

    The Germans build missile defense systems. It might be German-made weapons that are being deployed in the Caucasus region. The Austrians have for centuries maintained military outposts in Tabriz, Iran. Tabriz is near Anatolia. Albania, Bosnia, and Kosovo are Muslim enclaves in the Balkans. It is possible there are airbases in Kosovo that manage regional trade.

    It is controversial when military radios are used for international trade. Albania, Bosnia, and Croatia have strategic ports. It is not well understood what military hardware is traded through these ports. It might be that rocket weapons and missile defense systems pass through Albanian ports on the way to Turkey and the Caucasus region. Albania has both strategic ports and railroads.

    A few months ago, the Germans reported labor strikes. Lviv, Ukraine serves as a regional hub for labor unions. Lviv is near the border with Poland. In World War II there was a battle in Lviv. The prisons in Ukraine have been upgraded with defense spending. There are reports that the German security services send radios that are used by the police in Kiev.

    Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia are similar in that they are enclaves in the Caucasus region. Abkhazia is a port on the Black Sea and the others are inland. It is possible there are airbases in both Turkey and Abkhazia that manage the recent weapons deployments in Azerbaijan. It is controversial about nanotechnology and weaponry. There are historical anecdotes about labor strikes in East Germany and Czechoslovakia. Dresden, Germany is near Prague. Dresden used to have dive bomber training schools.

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    Defense Spending in Virginia

    October 4th, 2020

    Flag of Virginia

    Virginia is south of the Potomac River and Washington, DC is north of the river. The Pentagon is in Arlington, Virginia. Arlington is a city in Arlington County. Arlington County borders the Potomac River. Robert E. Lee lived in Arlington County. It is storied that General Lee took the train to Richmond, Virginia from Arlington to speak with Confederate leaders. Richmond is a three-hour train ride from Arlington and it was the capital of the Confederacy. Both Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis attended the United States Military Academy at West Point.

    There are reports today about a truck bomb in Afghanistan. Fifteen people were killed by a truck bomb in Afghanistan’s eastern Nangahar province. The Pashtun tribesmen live near the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. It’s controversial about the Pentagon’s efforts regarding Afghanistan. The Pashtun tribesmen are sometimes considered American allies. It might be unwise to rely on them for conventional theater operations. The Battle of Tora Bora in 2001 is an example of a failed mission and American military personnel relied heavily on the Pashtun tribesmen.

    Virginia is formally the ‘Commonwealth of Virginia’ and there are laws in Virginia that are friendly toward labor unions. As a matter of law, it’s not clear if a defense contractor can be on a labor strike. Workers usually declare a strike and set terms. They then receive strike wages. It’s possible that there are labor strikes in Virginia that go unreported. The reports coming from Afghanistan might evidence long term labor strikes.

    The Virginians are ethnically Prussian and they speak in a regional dialect. It can be described as Prussian creole. For example, in Louisiana people speak a different form of creole. It’s been suggested that the Virginians speak creole during military operations and that this results in American casualties. Military operations might not be successful if the officers speak creole instead of English. It might not be possible to give accurate descriptions of locations in creole. Also, it might be confusing about the mission and the delegation of authority if the solders are speaking creole.

    The United State Congress is at least partially responsible for the defense budget. It’s not well understood in the context of defense spending if American soldiers speak Virginian creole while on duty. There are implications about military hardware and military radios. It’s controversial generally about imported military hardware and it might be tempting for Virginians to lobby to import German-made radios. East Germany traded in East German mark and West Germany traded in West German mark. Frankfurt is the German banking district.

    There seems to be a relationship between organized labor, imported hardware, and Virginian creole. The defense contractors might speak creole and use German-made radios. There are consistent reports about violence in Afghanistan. One explanation is that there are labor disputes in proximity to the defense budget. There are historical anecdotes about labor strikes in East Germany and Czechoslovakia. There used to be dive bomber training schools in Dresden, Germany. The Virginians might coordinate regularly with the Germans in Dresden regarding radio technology.

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    Missile Defense Systems in the Balkans

    September 25th, 2020

    Flag of Serbia

    A Serbian jet fighter, the Army of Serbia (VS) MiG-21, crashed yesterday near the village of Basina in Western Serbia.  Aleksandar Vucic is the President of Serbia. Vucic attended the University of Belgrade School of Law. A Serbian delegation visited the White House earlier this month to sign an agreement about Kosovo. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia.

    Albania, Bosnia, and Kosovo are Muslim enclaves in the Balkans. The Kosovars are ethnically Albanian. Bosnia remains an important port for the German military because Sarajevo trades in Bosnian mark. It’s called the Bosnian convertible mark. East Germany traded in East German mark and West Germany traded in West German mark. Frankfurt is the German banking district.

    There might be airbases in Kosovo that manage regional trade. Kosovo is inland but Albania and Bosnia are ports. Albania has both strategic ports and railroads. The Germans might trade through both Albanian ports and Bosnian ports. It’s controversial generally about military radios used for international trade.

    The Germans used to test warplanes in the Libyan desert. There were military research facilities near the border between Egypt and Libya. Dresden, Germany is in the south near the Czech Republic. Prague used to be in Czechoslovakia. There were dive bomber training schools in Dresden in the early twentieth century. During the Cold War there were reports about labor strikes in both East Germany and Czechoslovakia.

    Radio signals are sent south from Dresden, Germany to Bosnia about trade. Benghazi and Tripoli are Libyan ports. Historically there have been labor strikes in Libya. The labor unions in Libya might be ethnically German labor unions. Berlin is the seat of Prussia. It’s possible that Libyan labor unions are ethnically Prussian labor unions.

    The Germans make missile defense systems. It’s controversial about nanotechnology and weaponry. The Serbian plane might have crashed because of a missile defense system. The plane was flying in Serbia. Airbases nearby might have sent a radio transmission toward the plane which caused the plane to crash.

    In recent years there have been high profile accounts about warplanes crashing in Anatolia and the Levant. A Russian plane crashed over Turkey and the pilots died in 2015. There were reports that Turkish gunmen shot the pilot who survived the crash. Anatolia is known as Turkey or Western Asia. The Russian plane was shot down while it was flying over Turkey and then Turkish infantrymen went looking for the pilots.

    In the Levant, a Russian plane was shot down in 2018. It might be there are missile defense systems in the Levant and the cargo plane flew too close to them. Missile defense systems might be responsible for all three of these plane crashes. The Germans have developed radios that can send long distance transmissions with precision. Weapons platforms in Anatolia and the Levant receive signals from German land positions.

    There remains an observable disparity in wealth between Germany’s west and Germany’s east. The process of rebuilding East Germany would have been expensive. The German military seems to use radio technology for trade. There are concerns about market prices and there are reports about inflation. Inflation has been reported recently in Beirut.

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    Alexei Navalny is Being Treated by German Doctors

    August 22nd, 2020 "Alexei Navany" Photo by Evgeny Feldman, Photo taken in 2017.

    Alexei Navalny is in Germany today because he needs treatment for an illness. He fell sick and he was admitted to a hospital in Omsk, Russia. Omsk is in Siberia and it is famous because Feodor Dostoevsky was imprisoned there. There is debate about whether or not Navalny has been poisoned but the reports are that he is comatose and that he requires hospitalization. There are complaints about the doctors in Omsk because they suggested Navalny was not poisoned. Regardless, he is certainly sick and German doctors are attending to him in Berlin.

    It is possible that Navalny is the victim of a chemical munitions attack. There have been reports about chemical munitions in Syria for decades. In Turkey there are airbases. In 2008 the Russian infantry crossed the border into Georgia. Abkhazia and South Ossetia are enclaves in Georgia. Abkhazia sits along the coast and South Ossetia is inland. Tbilisi is the capital of Georgia. Gagra and Sukhumi are ports in Abkhazia. The Ottomans used to use Abkhazia as a trading post. North Ossetia is in Russia. There might be airbases in both Turkey and Abkhazia that pose a threat to the Russian infantry.

    Earlier this summer there were reports about labor strikes in Germany. Lviv, Ukraine is near the border with Poland. East Germany traded in East German mark and West Germany traded in West German mark. Frankfurt is the German banking district. Warsaw trades in zloty. The German army developed and deployed chemical munitions in the early twentieth century. Lviv today serves as a regional hub for labor unions but there was major battle there during World War II.

    Recently there have been complaints about the German security services. Vladimir Putin made a telephone call to Angela Merkel last week about Minsk. It might be that the German security services are trying to influence the elections in Belarus. Minsk trades in Belarusian ruble and Moscow trades in Russian ruble. The Russian government reported earlier this year that the ruble had weakened. In 1998 there was a famous crash of the Russian ruble.

    Brandenburg is a province in eastern Germany. Potsdam is the capital of Brandenburg. Berlin is the seat of Prussia. Frederick II founded Potsdam. Dresden is the capital of Sachsen. There are historical anecdotes about labor strikes in East Germany and Czechoslovakia. Prague used to be in Czechoslovakia. Today Prague is in the Czech Republic. Dresden is across the border from Prague. The labor strikes might have resulted from the manufacture of military hardware. Chemical munitions were likely manufactured in Sachsen. During the 1930’s there were dive bomber training schools in Dresden. There were military academies also in Berlin and Potsdam.

    The Austrians have for centuries maintained military outposts in Tabriz, Iran. Tabriz is in the north near Turkey. It is not well understood the nature of German military operations in Anatolia. Anatolia is synonymous with Turkey and Asia Minor. Chemical munitions seem to be transported between Sachsen and the Syrian desert. German dive bombers were used against the Russian infantry at the Battle of Stalingrad. Stalingrad has been renamed Volgograd. Volgograd is a port on the Volga River near the Caspian Sea.

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    Military Academies in Venezuela

    August 11th, 2020

    Flag of Venezuela

    Two former U.S. Special Forces members, Airan Berry and Luke Denman, are in prison in Venezuela. They have been sentenced to twenty years in prison as a result of a military operation. The military operation in May was intended to put pressure on President Nicolas Maduro. There was a trial and a court handed down a sentence of twenty years. Venezuela’s attorney general announced the sentence on Twitter. The botched mission was called Operation Gideon.

    There are historical anecdotes about military academies and tank driving schools in Venezuela. Hugo Chavez attended a tank driving school south of Caracas. There are additionally accounts about military academies in Maracay and Valencia. Caracas is a port on the Venezuelan Basin.

    Venezuela and Bolivia trade in bolivar. They are the ‘Bolivar Republics’. Buenos Aires and Santiago trade in peso. Brasilia trades in a Portuguese money called the real. There have been reports about inflation in both Venezuela and Argentina. Simon Bolivar is a famous revolutionary from the nineteenth century.

    It is possible that the Germans send military hardware to Caracas from the Gulf of Danzig. Lubeck, Germany is a port near Poland. The Gulf of Danzig is in Poland. Lubeck used to trade in East German mark. The Venezuelan military might generally use German-made weaponry. During the Falklands War in the 1980’s there were accounts about ordnance that did not explode. The shells were dropped from Argentinian planes but they were duds.

    There are well known military academies in Argentina. Buenos Aires is a port on the Atlantic Ocean. Dresden, Germany is across the border from Prague, Czech Republic. There were dive bomber training schools in Dresden during the early twentieth century. Both Lubeck and Dresden were East German cities. There are also military academies in Berlin and Potsdam. Prague used to be in Czechoslovakia.

    It is not well understood about the relationship between the military academies in Germany and the military academies in South America. Last month the German news reported on labor strikes. There might be relationships between Berlin and Buenos Aires that are rooted in organized labor.

    Lviv, Ukraine serves as a regional hub for labor unions. There are likely prisons in Ukraine that have been upgraded with defense spending. It is controversial generally about organized labor and prison upgrades. The German security services might assist with these prison upgrades in Ukraine. There was a famous battle during the Second World War in Lviv.

    Lviv is near the border with Poland. Warsaw trades in zloty. Labor leaders in Warsaw seem to manage trade through the Gulf of Danzig. Frankfurt is the German banking district. It is not clear about the future of the German economy. There are complaints about Right Wing politics in Germany.

    Inflation in Venezuela might result from long distance trade through the Venezuelan Basin. The economy might improve if Caracas traded locally. There are reports about the energy industry in Venezuela. They seem to rely on foreigners to assist them with energy engineering. Earlier this year there were reports of an Iranian tanker that sailed to Caracas. It might be that there are labor leaders in Caracas that coordinate with organized labor in other countries.

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    Radio Technology in Germany

    May 6th, 2020

    Radio Tower

    There are modern trends in German radio technology. Radios are used in Germany for trade, internal security, and for military purposes. There are labor unions and military academies in Germany. It is likely that defense contractors are hired to use German military radios. The defense budget in Germany is likely weighted toward radio technology and related spending.

    The Gulf of Danzig is in Poland but it serves as a strategic port for German merchants. Lubeck, Germany is near Poland. Gdansk is a Polish port near the Gulf of Danzig. Scandinavian merchants sometimes trade through the Gulf of Danzig. The Baltic States are near there. Estonia trades in EURO. Sweden has in modern times lended money to Estonia. This is not well received because the krona might be tied to metals trading instead of industry. Conceptually there should not be money lending if currencies are tied to metals trading.

    Berlin is the seat of Prussia. Brandenburg and Sachsen are German provinces. Potsdam is the capital of Brandenburg and Dresden is the capital of Sachsen. They used to trade in East German mark. East German mark was worth less than West German mark. There was a large communications relay in East Berlin. Bosnia trades in Bosnian mark. Bosnia remains an important port for the German military. It is controversial generally about German trade through the Balkans. There are concerns about organized labor in Germany’s eastern provinces.

    A trial began in Frankfurt, Germany last week which is related to counterterrorism. The trial brings to the foreground issues pertaining to German radio technology. The German government uses military radios for the purposes of internal security. The defendant is an Iraqi man. There have been tank battles near Baghdad and Damascus. It is possible that tanks are sent to the Levant from the Gulf of Danzig. There are likely German military officers who assist the Iraqi military to drive tanks. There are military academies and tank driving schools in the Levant. German radios are likely exported along with these tanks. There are radio signals sent to tank positions from German airbases.

    The problem is fiscal responsibility. There used to be roadblocks and watchtowers in East Berlin. There were official cars and nonofficial cars. The nonofficial cars were searched thoroughly. There were accounts about barbed wire fences and other fortifications in urban areas. Prisons should not be upgraded with defense technology. It is likely there are prisons in Ukraine that have been upgraded with defense spending. Lviv, Ukraine seems to be a regional hub for labor unions. Lubeck is a German port near the Gulf of Danzig. Lubeck used to trade in East German mark. If there are labor unions near prisons then the conditions at the prisons might be questioned.

    Where there are radio towers there are likely technology research facilities. The Germans have developed radios that can send long distance transmissions with precision. It is controversial when military radios are used for international trade. The German military tests radio technology on the beaches of the Baltic Sea. There are historical anecdotes about labor strikes in East Germany and Czechoslovakia. There might be German engineers who test radio technology in Poland. Warsaw is inland. There are likely large airbases in Poland. There might be labor leaders in Warsaw who manage trade through the Gulf of Danzig. There are land routes to Warsaw from Brandenburg.

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    The Logistics of Trade Between Hanoi and London

    October 27th, 2019

    Vietnam.

    There are updates coming from London about an abandoned vehicle with deceased Chinese nationals in it. The deceased were thought to have come from China but it’s possible that many of them were Vietnamese nationals. The authorities in London are coordinating with the Chinese embassy to identify them. Macau and Taiwan are historically Portuguese trading posts. Manchester is in northern England. There are routes between the Lowlands and Ireland. Belfast and Dublin receive commercial shipments from the Lowlands.

    Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City is a port in the south. Hanoi is inland and in the north. Vientiane is the capital of Laos. Hanoi sits across the border from Vientiane. Da Nang is a Vietnamese port near Hanoi. Ho Chi Minh City is the same city as Saigon. Laos doesn’t trade much internationally and there aren’t any Laotian ports on the ocean. There is a border between China and Laos. There are historical anecdotes about Chinese military operations on the Laotian side of the border. There are modern accounts about the politburos in Hanoi and Beijing coordinating in the political arena.

    Vientiane uses the Laotian Kip as its national currency and Hanoi uses the Vietnamese Dong. The exchange rate between USD and Vietnamese Dong is 1:23,200. There are logistical issues pertaining to energy trading in Southeast Asia. There are petroleum reserves in Indonesia and there are coal reserves in other parts of Southeast Asia. The terrain is remote and the monies aren’t easy to regulate in terms of money lending or exchange rates. For example, it’s not well understood if Laotian merchants can borrow money from Vietnamese banks or if they can trade by way of Vietnamese ports. Additionally, there are ports along the Mekong River.

    There are Ming Chinese populations in Ho Chi Minh City. It’s controversial about the sealanes between Ho Chi Minh City and Shanghai because there are disputes about commercial jurisdiction and military jurisdiction. Shanghai has seasonal ports. There are concerns about inflation in Shanghai because the ports are seasonal. There are problems levying taxes and regulating the financial districts in Shanghai. Hong Kong uses the dollar as its national currency and Macau uses the Macanese Pataca. The exchange rate between USD and Macanese Pataca is 1:8. Regionally, there is a demand for commodities and it’s contested about the prices of food stuffs as well as consumer durables.

    It’s believed that the abandoned vehicle in England had come through Varna, Bulgaria which is a port on the Black Sea. There are routes north through the Balkans. Sarajevo uses the Bosnian Convertible Mark as its national currency. There are strategic ports in both Bosnia and Albania. The British authorities are monitoring the ports in North Africa and in the Balkans. There are ongoing disputes about commercial sea lanes in North Africa. Rabat and Tunis serve as regional trade junctions.

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    Chinese Commercial Interests in London

    October 25th, 2019

    London Eye.

    There are reports coming from London about an abandoned vehicle with dead Chinese nationals in it. It’s not clear yet exactly where the deceased had come from. It’s possible they had come from Macau or Hong Kong. The authorities in London are coordinating with the Chinese embassy in an effort to identify the deceased. This process is likely to be lengthy.

    There are strategic ports in the Lowlands and near Manchester. Belfast and Dublin are Irish ports. Lubeck is a German port near the Gulf of Danzig. Gdansk is a Polish port. There are concerns about organized labor in these port cities. There are historical anecdotes about labor strikes in Ireland. It’s possible that labor leaders in Lubeck coordinate strikes in Belfast and Dublin. There have been nationwide labor strikes in Ireland.

    The routes to London north from the Lowlands or south from Manchester are controversial. The Lowlands include Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. London uses the British Pound Sterling as its national currency and Amsterdam uses the Euro. There are high unemployment rates in Spain and Portugal. It’s difficult to maintain market prices if unemployment rates are high. There is likely inflation in Catalonia.

    It’s interesting about the relationship between labor strikes and inflation. Madrid reported an unemployment rate in 2017 of 17% and Lisbon reported an unemployment rate of 9%. It’s possible that there are labor strikes in Spain and Portugal that are obscured by unemployment statistics.

    In terms of currency trading in London and Amsterdam, there are outstanding issues relating to East Asian monies. Beijing uses the yuan, Tokyo uses the won, and Seoul uses the won. Pyongyang uses the North Korean Won. There are concerns about predatory money lending in East Asia. The exchange rate between USD and North Korean Won is 1:900. There are logistical problems with regulating the banks in Pyongyang.

    Finally, the ports in North Africa are being monitored by British authorities. Ceuta and Barcelona are ports on the Mediterranean Sea. Rabat is a port on the Atlantic Ocean. Algiers and Tunis serve as regional trade junctions. Each of these cities allow Chinese merchants to trade by way of the commercial ports.

    Within the European Union, it’s possible there are trade routes that give priority to labor unions. There are real concerns about market prices at ports where there is organized labor. If there are labor unions that specifically trade between Manchester and Dublin, then there might be inflation such that inflation rates can be observed through economic indicators.

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    Portuguese Gold Mining Operations in Brazil

    November 2nd, 2016 Flag of Portugal

    By: Donna Welles

    Portugal has reported a diminishing net trade deficit in recent years. It is possible that wealth from gold mines in Brazil has helped the Portuguese economy to balance its net trade deficit. The price of gold is listed by the International Monetary Fund. Switzerland has been at the center of litigation in Brasilia because Brazilian government officials utilize Swiss banks. Switzerland imports more gold than any other country in the world.

    The relationship between Portugal, Brazil, Angola, and Switzerland is unfolding right now in the South American media. Venezuela has recently begun a large-scale gold mining operation and the Venezuelan media has reported deaths in mines. The theme behind the investigations into Portugal and Switzerland is whether or not the methods by which wealth is being removed from South America is in keeping with international law.

    Brazil and Angola have shared colonial histories with Portugal. Additionally, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, and Cabo Verde have shared colonial histories with Portugal. Guinea-Bissau and Angola are located on the African continent along the Atlantic Ocean and Mozambique is located along the Indian Ocean. Mozambique serves as a transit corridor between South Africa and Kenya. Cabo Verde and Sao Tome and Principe are islands off the coast of West Africa.

    Angola has been in the media in recent weeks because Brazilian government officials have business connections in West Africa. Annually, Angola is burdened by a sizable net trade deficit and its energy and metals reserves are not being efficiently cultivated and exported. Mozambique does not report healthy finances to the World Bank. Guinea-Bissau for many years has not reported trade data to the World Bank.

    Portugal began its colonial exploration in West Africa by way of Ceuta, Morocco in roughly 1400. Later, Portuguese sailors founded what is now Brazil in roughly 1500. Generally, Portuguese business interests first arrive in West Africa and then they appear in South America. Many cities in Brazil including Rio de Janeiro have sizable ethnically Angolan populations. Portugal has an unemployment rate of 16% and there might be domestic pressure on the Portuguese government to provide for internal demand.

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    El Salvador and Manufacturing Exports

    October 24th, 2016
    Flag of El Salvador

    By: Donna Welles

         El Salvador has defaulted on its national currency and now uses instead the United States Dollar. Violence in El Salvador is well documented by the media. El Salvador shares land borders with Honduras and Guatemala and they sit across the bay from Nicaragua. Salvador Sanchez Ceren has been the President of El Salvador since 2014.

         El Salvador is burdened by an annual net trade deficit of roughly $5b USD. In 2006, El Salvador reported $4b USD in exports and $8b USD in imports. In 2015, El Salvador reported $5b USD in exports and $10b USD in imports. Therefore in the previous decade the annual net trade deficit has increased from $4b USD to $5b USD.

         El Salvador exports what the World Bank categorizes as miscellaneous manufactured goods. Annually they enjoy roughly a $1b USD trade surplus in miscellaneous manufactured goods. In 2006, El Salvador exported $2b USD in miscellaneous manufactured goods and that amount increased by 2015 to $3b USD.

         El Salvador has an army of 42,000 soldiers which is slightly fewer than Guatemala which has an army of 43,000 soldiers. The Mexican Army has 336,000 soldiers. Guatemala has the highest fertility rates in the region at 3.2 births per woman. El Salvador has a fertility rate which is slightly lower than that of Mexico. Mexico reported a fertility rate in 2014 of 2.2 births per woman and El Salvador reported a fertility rate that year of 1.9 births per woman.

         In terms of land area, El Salvador is roughly 21,000 sq km whereas Guatemala is 107,000 sq km. Mexico has a land area of 2m sq km. El Salvador enjoys a higher life expectancy than Guatemala. In 2014, El Salvador reported a life expectancy of 73 years whereas Guatemala reported a life expectancy of 72 years. Life expectancy in Mexico is 77 years. Literacy in the region is roughly 90 percent. El Salvador reported a literacy rate of nearly exactly 90 percent while Mexico reported a literacy rate of 96 percent. Guatemala reported a literacy rate of 85 percent.

         Mexico City is the capital of Mexico and it has a population of 21m people. San Salvador is the capital of El Salvador and it has a population of 1m people. Guatemala City is larger than San Salvador. In 2015, Guatemala City had a population of 3m people. Total population figures are such that Mexico has a population of 130m people, Guatemala has a population of 16m people, and El Salvador has a population of 6m people.

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    An Overview of the Argentinian Economy

    October 16th, 2016 Flag of Argentina

    By: Donna Welles

    Mauricio Macri is the President of Argentina and Michel Temer is the President of Brazil. Cristina Kirchner preceded Mauricio Macri and Dilma Rousseff preceded Michel Temer. Both Cristina Kirchner and Dilma Rousseff have been investigated by authorities for financial crimes. While Cristina Kirchner has not yet faced trial, Dilma Rousseff has been found guilty of financial crimes and she has been asked to leave public office.

    Many countries in South America are experiencing trials where government officials are being charged with financial crimes. In Venezuela and in Brazil the supreme courts have become active in these investigations. It seems appropriate to review the report submitted by Argentina to the World Bank.

    Argentina has reported fluctuating GDP values to the World Bank since 2011. In 2011 Argentina reported a GDP of $533b USD, in 2012 Argentina reported a GDP of $549b USD, in 2013 Argentina reported a GDP of $554b USD, in 2014 Argentina reported a GDP of $530b USD, and in 2015 Argentina reported a GDP of $583b USD. Total population in Argentina increased slightly from 42m people in 2011 to 43m people in 2015.

    Trade balances holistically transitioned from a large trade surplus to a $3b USD net trade deficit. In 2006 Argentina reported a $12b USD trade surplus and that trade surplus was reduced to $2b USD by 2013. In 2014 Argentina reported a trade surplus of $3b USD but in 2015 Argentina reported a $3b USD net trade deficit. Both exports and imports fluctuate in Argentina. In 2006 Argentina reported $47b USD in exports and $34b USD in imports. In 2011 Argentina reported $83b USD in exports and $74b USD in imports. In 2015, Argentina reported $57b USD in exports and $60b USD in imports.

    Unemployment in Argentina was down to 7.3% in 2014 from 8.5% in 2007. Fertility rates have decreased since 2007 from 2.4 births per woman in 2007 to 2.3 births per woman in 2014. Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city in Argentina. The population of Buenos Aires was 14m people in 2007 and in 2015 it was 15m people. Argentina has enjoyed a slight improvement in life expectancy since 2007 when  it was 75 years. Argentinians in 2014 enjoyed a life expectancy of 76 years.

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    Trade Deficits in Paraguay and Uruguay

    September 24th, 2016 Flag of Uruguay

    By: Donna Welles 

    Last week the South American media reported that Uruguayan politicians are being investigated for criminal activity. Argentina, Brazil, and Chile have experienced similar litigation in the past weeks and months. The nature of the investigations into the Uruguayan government is not yet fully understood. Argentina and Brazil have been investigating officials for financial crimes and Chile has been prosecuting military officers for violent crimes committed during the tenure of President Augusto Pinochet.

    Uruguay and Paraguay have similar economies and demographics. Paraguay was founded by Spain and for many years Asuncion served as the regional capital for the Spanish Empire. Uruguay was for many years part of Brazil. Ethnically the two countries are similar because they are Spanish and Italian.

    Both Paraguay and Uruguay are burdened by trade deficits. There is fluctuation in both countries in terms of imports and exports. Patterns in international trade by way of MERCOSUR as well as trade with North America and the European Union account for some of the fluctuations. Also, both Paraguay and Uruguay have recently upgraded their industry. Uruguay ranches cattle and additionally they export machine works. Paraguay is removed from the Atlantic Ocean but they are located downstream from Buenos Aires, Argentina and therefore enjoy transplanted industrial growth. The Parana River traverses north from Buenos Aires to Paraguay.

    In 2011 Paraguay reported exports of $8b USD and imports of $12b USD. In 2012 exports decreased to $7b USD and then in 2013 and in 2014 exports increased to $10b USD. Exports decreased again in 2015 to $8b USD. Paraguay also reported fluctuating imports. In 2011 Paraguay reported imports of $13b USD and in 2012 that number decreased to $12b USD. In 2015 Paraguay reported imports of $10b USD.

    In 2011 Uruguay reported exports of $8b USD and imports of $11b USD. In 2012, 2013, and 2014 Uruguay reported exports of $9b USD and then in 2015 Uruguay reported exports of $8b USD. Imports increased in 2012 to $12b USD. In 2015 Uruguay reported imports of $9b USD. Holistically Uruguay has reported a lessened trade deficit since 2011. In 2011 their trade deficit was $3b USD and in 2015 Uruguay reported a trade deficit of $2b USD.

    Paraguay has a population of 7m people and Uruguay has a population of 4m people. Uruguay has a GDP of $58b USD and Paraguay has a GDP of $31b USD. Paraguay has a largest city of 3m people and Uruguay has a largest city of 2m people. Uruguay has a life expectancy of 77 years and Paraguay has a life expectancy of 72 years. Montevideo is the capital of Uruguay and Asuncion is the capital of Paraguay.

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    An Overview of the Brazilian Economy

    September 16th, 2016

    By Donna Welles.

     

    An Overview of the Brazilian Economy

    South America has natural resources and they are experiencing rapid growth in internet connectivity rates. The prices paid for the natural resources are regulated by the International Monetary Fund. The mechanisms to allow for economic growth involve market based prices of natural resources and efficiency in the distribution of agriculture. The region is experiencing a noticeable political shift away from something and toward something else.

    Several countries in South America are prosecuting government officials in criminal courts. There have been high profile allegations against the Brazilian government for corruption in recent weeks. President Dilma Rousseff has been impeached and found guilty of financial crimes. Former President Luiz Lula da Silva has been charged with financial crimes. Former House Speaker Eduardo Cunha is facing criminal charges for financial crimes.

    In Argentina Former President Cristina Kirchner is facing criminal charges for financial crimes. Chile is prosecuting former military officers for criminal behavior that is not financial in nature. The crimes in Chile were committed during the tenure of President Augusto Pinochet during the 1980s.

    The trials in Brazil pertain to two sources of corruption including, (1) Peterobras which is the state-owned petroleum firm, and (2) Bolsa Familia, a 2003 government social welfare program from which funds have been siphoned. Former President Luiz Lula da Silva was the architect of Bolsa Familia and Former President Dilma Rousseff was at the time an aide to the Lula da Silva government. Brazil is a large country with a large economy and they would be greatly affected by slight changes in the commodities markets.

    Additionally the Brazilian economy has seen fluctuating trade balances and decreasing exports. In 2011 Brazilian exports totaled $256b USD and imports totaled $226b USD. Brazilian net trade in 2011 was a $31b USD surplus. In 2012 Brazilian exports decreased to $243b USD while imports remained steady at $223b USD. Therefore from 2011 to 2012 Brazil enjoyed a lessened trade surplus. Brazil reported a trade surplus of $31b USD in 2011, $19b USD in 2012, and $3b USD in 2013. In 2014 Brazil reported a trade deficit of $4b USD and then in 2015 Brazil reported again a surplus of $19b USD. In 2015 Brazilian exports totaled $191b USD and imports totaled $172b USD.

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    Trade Deficits in Central America

    September 7th, 2016

     

    By Donna Welles.

     

     

    Central America consists of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize. Each of these countries is struggling with industry and they have reported to the World Bank annual trade deficits. Mexico is a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Panama Canal was built a century ago to allow for commercial transit between New York City and the State of California. The American economy is affected by trade deficits in Latin America.

    The nature of the trade deficits is that each country reports an annual decline in exports. Ideally industry in Central America can be revitalized. If a country cannot sustain the domestic demand for goods and services then of course there will be a need to import. This is what is happening. Industry in Central America is not sustainable and there is domestic demand for goods and services.

    Mexico has a gross domestic product above $1.2t USD. Guatemala reported a GDP of $59b USD, Costa Rica reported a GDP of $50b USD, Panama reported a GDP of $46b USD, El Salvador reported a GDP of $25b USD. Honduras, Nicaragua, and Belize have economies smaller than that of El Salvador.

    Mexico and Guatemala have populations of more than ten million people. The rest of the region reports per country populations of less than ten million people. Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize have populations of less than five million people. Mexico has a city with twenty million people. Guatemala has a city with three million people. The rest of the region reports largest cities under three million people. Costa Rica, Panama, and Mexico have life expectancies over 75 years. Nicaragua has a life expectancy of 75 years.

    Mexico has an army of 325,000 soldiers. The rest of the region reported smaller armed forces personnel totals. Guatemala has an army of 42,000 soldiers, El Salvador has an army of 32,000. The rest of the region reported per country armies smaller than that of El Salvador. Mexico has a land area of 2m square km. Nicaragua, Honduras, and Guatemala have land areas above 100,000 square km.

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    An Inventory of South American Demographics

    September 1st, 2016

    By Donna Welles.

         Venezuela and Brazil are struggling currently with political upheaval. The Venezuelan opposition party has announced a large march this week protesting the government of President Nicolas Maduro and the President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, has been impeached by the Brazilian Senate.

         South of Venezuela and Brazil are four smaller countries that might be affected by this political turmoil. These are Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Each of these four countries currently experiences a trade deficit with the People’s Republic of China. Trade deficits can lead to political turmoil and so it is an appropriate time to inventory social economic indicators in Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

         Peru has the largest population and Uruguay has the smallest population. Peru has a total of 32m people, Bolivia has 11m people, Paraguay has 7m people, and Uruguay has 4m people. Peru has the largest city and Uruguay reported the smallest figure for largest city. Peru has a city of 10m people, Paraguay has a city of 3m people, Bolivia has a city of 2m people, and Uruguay has a city of 2m people.

         Uruguay has the longest life expectancy and Bolivia has the shortest life expectancy. Uruguay has a life expectancy of 77 years, Peru has a life expectancy of 75 years, Paraguay has a life expectancy of 73 years, and Bolivia has a life expectancy of 68 years.

         Peru has the largest land area and Uruguay has the smallest land area. Peru has a land area of 1.3m square km, Bolivia has a land area of 1.1m square kilometers, Paraguay has a land area of 400,000 square km, and Uruguay has a land area of 200,000 km. Lima is the capital of Peru, Asuncion is the capital of Paraguay, La Paz is the capital of Bolivia, and Montevideo is the capital of Uruguay.

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    Nigerian Energy and the Commodities Markets

    August 24th, 2016

    By Donna Welles.

     

    Resultado de imagen de Nigerian Energy and the Commodities Markets

     

    Nigeria, Togo, Benin, and Ghana all are having to defend their natural resources because the commodities markets are out of alignment and not enough money is being paid in exchange for energy or metals. Nigeria and Ghana have valuable energy reserves and Ghana additionally has metals. Togo and Benin are small countries in between them.

    Nigerian petroleum refineries are not operating at peak efficiency and the Nigerian Government is sometimes confronted by a hostile private sector. All four countries have ports on the Atlantic Ocean. West African countries have capital cities that are also ports and some have capital cities that are inland.

    Abuja is the capital of Nigeria and it is inland, Accra is the capital of Ghana and it is a port, Cotonou is the capital of Benin and it is a port, and Lome is the capital of Togo and it is a port.

    Nigeria has a GDP of $569b USD, Ghana has a GDP of $39b USD, Benin has a GDP of $10b USD, and Togo has a GDP of $5b USD. Nigeria has a population of 177m people, Ghana has a population of 27m people, Benin has a population of 11m people, and Togo has a population of 7m people.

    In terms of military personnel neither Benin nor Togo have armies larger than 10,000 soldiers. Ghana has an army of 16,000 soldiers and Nigeria has an army of 162,000 soldiers.

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    Venezuela Economics and the Referendum

    August 18th, 2016

         By Donna Welles.

     

    (1)

    Hugo Chavez has been succeeded by Nikolas Maduro. Hugo Chavez had a public mandate and an organic constituency. Nikolas Maduro worked for Hugo Chavez and then Hugo Chavez died suddenly in 2013. I view Maduro with suspicion and the people of Venezuela likely also view Maduro with suspicion. Either Maduro is culpable in the death of Hugo Chavez or he is not.

         Economically since the death of Hugo Chavez there is less food and more foreign military personnel exporting petroleum when the commodities markets make selling energy unwise. Foreign military personnel in Venezuela exporting energy seem unmoved that there is little food in grocery stores. The foreign military personnel likely come from Spain, the Netherlands, and Russia.

         England and France are north in the Caribbean Sea and east in French Guinea. Belize still lists the Queen of England as its Head of State but French Guinea does not report much trade data to the World Bank. England once exported dyes to Europe from the Yucatan Peninsula and France has a colonial history in Mexico. The United States fought the Spanish-American War after the explosion on the USS Maine while it was sitting in a Havana harbor.

         Elections for the Venezuelan Parliament, the referendum, and audits of treasury money are symptoms of food shortages and energy being removed from South America en masse without adequate compensation. The International Monetary Fund lists energy prices on its website and petroleum and natural gas prices remain low.

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    Asiatic States of Eastern Europe, Economic Profile

    September 24th, 2015

    By Donna Welles.

     

     Edgar Savisaar Mayor of Tallinn, Estonia.

    Edgar Savisaar
    Mayor of Tallinn, Estonia.

     

    Yesterday Tallinn sacked its Mayor, Edgar Savisaar, and arrested him on suspicion of taking bribes. Estonia is not an Indo-European nation, rather it is Asiatic and closely related to Finland and Hungary. Allow us to examine these Asiatic nations in Eastern Europe by way of their social and economic indicators.

    Finland has the highest life expectancy of the group, 81 years from birth. Both Estonia and Hungary have lower life expectancies than I would have thought, 76 and 75 years. It is possible the Estonian figure is affected by ethnic Russians left over from the Soviet Era; it is possible the Hungarian figure is affected by ethnic Slavic peoples left over from the Soviet Era. Estonia, Finland, and Hungary all have Western European social behaviors.

    Hungary has the largest population of the group, roughly 10m people. Finland’s population as of 2014 was 6m and Estonia’s was 2m. By contrast, France reported 66m, the United Kingdom reported 65m, and Sweden reported 10m.

    Finland and Estonia sit better in terms of unemployment than Hungary. Hungary reported an unemployment rate of 10% in 2013; Finland reported 8% and Estonia reported 9%. By contrast, the United Kingdom and Sweden both reported 8% and France reported 10%.

    Paris and London are much larger than Budapest, Stockholm, Helsinki, and Tallinn. Each of the latter cities have less than 2m people.

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    Economic context, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull

    September 17th, 2015

     

    By Donna Welles.

     

     

    A transition of power has taken place this week in Australia as a new Prime Minister has been installed. Allow us to examine Australia’s economy in the greater context of New Zealand and the United Kingdom using the following indicators, (1) GDP, (2) Population, and (3) Unemployment. 

    Regionally, GDP in Australia expanded to $1.5t USD in 2014 and New Zealand’s to $188b. In 2000, Australia’s GDP was $415b and New Zealand’s was $53b. Populations in both countries grew from 2000 to 2014. Australia’s population was 19.2m; it is now 23.5m. New Zealand’s population was 3.9m; it is now 4.5m. The United Kingdom’s population was 59m; it is now 65m.

    Largest City population data in each of these countries has grown in recent years. London now has 10.2m people, whereas in 2000 it had 8.6m. Sydney now has 4.5m people, whereas in 2000 it had 4.0m. Auckland now has 1.3m people, whereas in 2000 it had 1.0m.

    Unemployment data in the group has remained low since at least 2000. Australia has reported unemployment data of 5% and 6% from 2000-2012. . The United Kingdom has the highest rate of the group, 8% in 2013. New Zealand’s unemployment rates have been stable throughout that time, 6% in 2000 and 5% in 2012.

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    Egypt, Regional Context of Economic Stability

    September 10th, 2015 Source: World Bank, WDI.

    By Donna Welles.

     

    Although currently struggling with unemployment, Egypt has been immune to some of the fluctuations the global economy has experienced since 2008.

    Out of a sample of Egypt and its neighbors, only Egypt never experienced a year where its GDP contracted. Rather, Egypt’s economy has expanded every year since 2004. Allow us to examine Egypt in the regional context of Italy, Turkey, Greece, Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia.

    Italy’s is the only economy in the group that includes trillions of dollars. In 2014, Italy’s GDP was $2.1t USD and Turkey’s was $800b. A second tier within the group includes Egypt which reported a GDP of $287b, Greece of $238b, and Algeria of $214b. Finally, Morocco reported a GDP of $107b and Tunisia of $47b.

    Italy and Greece had the lowest unemployment figures of the group in 2008, 7% and 8%. Egyptian unemployment was 9% in 2008, Morocco’s was 10%, and both Turkey and Algeria reported unemployment figures of 11%.

    By 2013, Greek unemployment had risen to 27%, Egyptian to 13%, and Italian to 12%. By 2013, both Turkish and Algerian unemployment had dropped to 10% while Moroccan unemployment had dropped to 9%.

    Egypt’s population in 2014 was 83m people and it is slightly larger than the combined land areas of Texas and Oklahoma.

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