Posts by SebastianSarbu:
By Sebastian Sarbu.
ISIS is an unrecognized Islamic enclave state, founded on the 26th of June 2014 by an Al-Qaida affiliated Sunni group and organized as an Arab Caliphate having the city of al-Raqqah (Syria) for capital. This new Islamic state’s geographic extent comprises Syria, the Levant, and Iraq, as well as territories in Turkey and Lebanon. It has recently expanded into Libya, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
Structure, leaders, resources, objectives:
The Islamic State, also known as ISIS, exceeds the size of typical terrorist organizations. It is organized as a network irregular army enrolling 100,000 armed agents, out of which 40,000 Western agents, as well as hundreds of thousands of supporters. Its resources amount to 2,000,000,000 USD, as well as access to nonfinancial resources. The member count is variable and fluctuating, as there is no rigorous instrument to estimate it given this paramilitary structure’s irregular, network-type organization, which follows the model of lonely wolves.
ISIS is counting on the oil reserves of most Islamic countries.
The Syrian-Iraqi Islamic State (ISIS) has expanded its reach towards Europe. Its leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, has for major objective the division of the world on religious criteria. Abu Bakr’s second-in-command, Fadel al-Hiyali, also known as Abu Muslim al-Turkmani, was an army officer and had appropriate knowledge of strategy and tactics.
ISIS was created following the beginning, in the Arab world and the entire area of North Africa, of a regional independence war and of emancipatory, anti-neocolonial revolution, which developed alongside the democracy wave initiated by the West itself. The Arab world is going through a series of revolutions for decolonization, a fact unknown by public opinion. Poverty and insecurity favor fundamentalist religious movements which are well-embedded in the Arab collective mind. Their purpose (and this is where Iran becomes interested) is to reactivate the pan-Arab movement. The desire to have a strong and united Arab world determined young Muslims, as well as other disfavored social categories, to join ISIS, as these people feel the West is attacking their fundamental values. This feeling is being exploited in an illegitimate and barbaric way by this terrorist entity financed by the same underground economy which led to poverty and insecurity; it is of great interest to Western reactionaries, not to mention that Euroscepticism and political extremist movements favored indirectly the rise of ISIS, as well as other extremist terrorist organizations.
It is equally true that ISIS was financed by Saudi Arabia, who plays a regional strategic part in the affair. As was the case with other terrorist organizations which developed in the context of globalization, they have benefitted from training centers hosted in Western countries, such as the USA or France. A few examples of such organizations: Al-Qaida, Hezbollah (pro-Iran), the Islamic Jihad, the Mali Group in Algiers, the Shaman Organization, Boko Haram. Past operations (1994): “Euphrates”, “Globalism”. Mission: a conceptual plan for an Islamic takeover of the world, by organizing terrorist acts in the USA via the Western Movement.
Note: All main terrorist organizations have merged with ISIS at the beginning of 2015, when ISIS tripled the number of its recruited members and expanded its actions and organizational structure into Libya, Nigeria, and Yemen. The secret merger with Al-Qaida was accomplished in January 2015 at the time of the events in Paris. ISIS’ targets are strategic and symbolic. USA and Russia are their main targets. They are trying to destabilize Turkey and China as the geostrategic aim is to threaten Europe’s security.
The West has discretely decided to disarm the Kurds living in the border areas.
The Islamic terrorists are not financed or organized in a planned way by the West. Both military leaders, as well as most political leaders in the Arab world have studied in Europe and the USA. Most Islamic terrorists are given an anti-Western education while benefitting from the West’s science and economy. They infiltrate the structures of other European states, including Romania, in a discrete way.
Affiliations and infiltrations involving organizations and facilities:
– the air force and airborne forces of Arlyse Special Agency, as combatants;
– access to the International Secret Computer.
The USA are interested in using the terrorist hotbed generated by the Islamic State in order to organize surgical military interventions or even larger scale interventions against Syria and especially against Iran. It is a strategic design involving political and economic interests in the pervasive competition with other power centers, especially the EU.
In the context of disputations with Russia, the US does not neglect the opportunity for cooperation with China on the issue of anti-terrorism. This is part of the USA’s strategic game: openness towards cooperation with China, especially if it is China that does the strategic move of considering cooperation in the fight against terrorism, and thus compensating from a geostrategic perspective the traditional imbalances between East and West.
We ask the Trump administration to make the following its highest priorities:
– Toppling the ISIS caliphate in the Middle East
– Continuing to deliver setbacks to ISIS in Syria and Iraq
– Focusing on the rising Islamist terror risk in Asia
– Funding, equipping and training more counter-terrorist squads like Delta 88 in Indonesia
– Using intelligence operations to work against Islamist politics around the world
– Negotiating with the Philippines to ensure that U.S. counterterrorism forces are not evicted
– Deepening pressure on Saudi Arabia to stop funding Islamist schools and institutions abroad
– Military sanction against Iran if is proved his involve in financing of terrorism.
– Capturing/killing Bahrun NAIM, the mastermind of the 2016 Jakara attacks, currently in Syria
Key allies in this renewed focus on defeating ISIS must be:
With regard to Bahrun NAIM (aka Muhammad Bahrun Naim Anggih TAMTOMO aka NA’IM aka ABU RAYYAN aka ABU AISHAH), TR notes the following:
– Three militants killed in Indonesia in Dec 2016 were tied to NAIM, who also coordinated the attack in Jan 2016 in which four people were killed in a district of Jakarta popular with foreigners.
– He is associated with MUJAHIDIN INDONESIA TIMUR (MIT) leader Abu WARDAH, who has pledged allegiance to ISIS.
– His activities include funding foreign nationals and pouring funds into Indonesia to assemble bombs.
– In 2010, Indonesia sentenced him to two and half years for possession of firearms and explosives.
– From Oct 2015 to Nov 2015, a Facebook account named Muhammad Bahrunnaim Anggih TAMTOMO distributed tutorials on making bombs and firearms, with links to a radical website that listed more comprehensive bomb-making instructions.
– Since 2014, he has been in Syria as a member of ISIS and has been writing a blog at bahrunnaim.co
With regard to Delta 88 (aka Special Detachment 88 aka Detasemen Khusus 88 aka Densus 88 aka Detachment 88), TR notes the considerable success it has had against the jihadi terrorist cells linked to the Central Java-based Islamist movement JEMAAH ISLAMIYAH.
Finally, it is a priority to implement the management of crisis situations, the strategy of integrated operational response: against terrorism, in crisis situations, against organized crime, and for social defense, to set up a National Antiterrorist Prosecution, as well as deport suspects of terrorism.
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
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An Alternative for Romania in the Era of Global Change: Open letter to President of the United States Donald TrumpJanuary 8th, 2017
By Sebastian Sarbu.
One does not have to be a politician, economist, or statistician in order to realize that, for the last two decades, Romania, as is the case with other Eastern European ex-socialist countries, is paying an enormous price for the favor of being accepted in the Euro-Atlantic structures.
The process of globalization imposed by the developed countries and accepted without reserve by Moscow’s former satellite countries allowed for the emergence, preservation, and development of markedly experimental transitional processes from socialism to capitalism with consequences which are difficult to predict in numerous areas: the social area, the economic area, the political area, or in the field of national, European, and global strategies.
History will certainly record sooner or later that membership in the Euro-Atlantic structures for Eastern European countries, as an instrument for the process of globalization, is the most important historical event of the last century, more important than even great military conflicts.
Romania got caught in this process and was forced to accept radical and profound changes including changes pertaining to the strategic industrial sector and other key sectors of the economy such as agriculture, services, health care, and education. Slowly but steadily, sometimes secretly, and at other times via loud media shows influencing Romanian society, much of national wealth “vanished” or changed owners, while the political class and the governing bodies were acceptant or complicit, having for effect today’s situation in Romania.
At the beginning of the 90s, special industry comprised 26 units where 200,000 people worked; on the ruins constituting what remained of it only 11,900 people work today.
Great chemical and petrochemical enterprises, renowned industrial units in the field of heavy or light industry changed owners overnight (these became national or international celebrities out of pathetic nobodies) or have disappeared, including the buildings they used.
The energy sector, representing 35% of national budget, was privatized sometimes by individual units, at other times in bulk, depending on the interest of decision making factors, not according to rigorous criteria of contemporary management practices.
Some privatizations were made while disregarding the fundamental law, the Romanian Constitution (article 136, paragraph 3, states that “underground resources of public interest, the air space, rivers whose potential energy can be exploited for national interest, the beaches, territorial waters, natural resources of the exclusive economic zone and continental waters, as well as other goods referred to in organic laws, are entirely publicly owned”).
Romania has the opportunity to develop its intellectual capital, its own national strategic potential via the allocation of resources, including foreign investment.
Intellectual capital refers to the spiritual component of the human capital, the creative potential of a nation, its cultural and scientific potential, which is being formed and accumulated continuously; it can be seen as the human creative capital produced by past and current generations.
The structure of the intellectual capital subsystem, is, in my view, represented by:
– the educational heritage;
– the cultural heritage;
– the medical heritage;
– the cultural and athletic heritage;
– the scientific heritage;
– the religious heritage.
For the national intellectual capital to be long lasting and efficient, it is of great importance to correctly manage human capital.
The fundamental objective of the management strategy for Romania’s national development is represented by the socio-economic microsystemic and macrosystemic imperative of overcoming primary needs, that is survival needs (food, water, sex, etc.) and safety needs (safety against theft, illness, natural contingencies and calamities) and at the same time by the increase in motivation and multidimensional socio-systemic standards, by satisfying the needs of efficiency, superior needs of processual development: (self)esteem, (self)development, productivity, and individual performance.
The necessity of accomplishing this multisystemic strategy is determined by the relationship between the resource represented by the vital power potential and the practical possibility of implementation, by eliminating the psychological barriers standing between idea and implementation, as well as between managers and workers.
Law abidance has to be imposed at all levels within a state organized according to the rule of law. The social, economical, and law experience in Romania after 1989 has shown that we have functional laws, but lacking methodology for applying them, and as such administrative and socio-economic measures lack in value and effects.
Legislative void, state of anomy, the absence of law in various fields of social life, the lack of regulation for certain economic measures, deterioration of quality, utility, and moral value of laws dictated by financial oligarchy and immediate needs, the absence of anticipation of long term consequences, have led to managerial chaos, waste of resources, decrease in production, moral, social, and professional corruption, as well as ensuring the supremacy of certain social interest groups. All these negative phenomena have taken place in the absence of an unitarily applied management strategy for the development of Romania. In the transitional period after 1989 we had political mimicry, attempts of applying foreign models of development, not well suited to the tendencies in Romanian society, production capabilities, as well as economic, political, social, and moral changes.
Historical processes no longer favor social uniformity leading to the emergence of institutions (structures), but favor instead the individual, seen as the basic and exponential entity within society.
The reform of social life can only be accomplished by reforming the life of the individual having for basis the ethics of free individual self-realization.
An evil still haunting Romanian political thinking is the destruction of conceptual and doctrinal continuity starting with the moment of social and historical discontinuity in the life of our nation which culminated in a progressive transition, which presents itself as a sort of nihilistic denial of all ideas of management developed in Romania’s past eras; this is the practical aspect of the crisis in management.
It is this denial that led to waste of resources, mismanagement of public funds, and lack of priorities in the allocation of resources according to the social and human needs for self-development.
Another kind of denial is related to the social character of the economy. Well-developed countries such as France, Japan, USA, Germany were not afraid to create an unique and unitary management strategy for development, while Romania, still an underdeveloped country, is dependent upon financial subjects and incapable of overruling the autarchy intrinsic in the financial and banking system while a number of its political leaders naively believe that by applying such strategies they are making political compromises which are of great importance for the correct management of human capital.
Romania can achieve this strategy of development and became an great partner of US in economy , researcher, and national security with his human capital, creativity and innovation capabilities. Romania can be mediator between Asia, Europe and USA, especially between East and West, because of his notorious geopolitical privilegiate position and due to its cultural vocation.
Romania is orienting itself towards implementing the solution of popular capital, which could boost the economy and production via the transition from gross domestic product to lasting domestic product.
While defining a people’s capitalism, we assert that equating money and wealth, or national wealth respectively, is a great error in economic, cultural, and civic thinking. Food, shelter, water, which are the premises for survival, are wealth. Money has value only if it can be exchanged for something of value, that is goods and services. Money is only a measure of potential available wealth.
The true source of wealth is information, as valuable ideas exploit and use resources better and ensure the continuity in strategic thinking.
It should be mentioned that the creativity factor often generates a country’s wealth. As such, in order to create a people’s capitalism, the community state has to be the main producer of wealth, controlling money and favoring the creation of goods and services by managing the resource of human capability, as well as informational resources, by having as a priority not money, but instead informational and material goods, with money acting as a catalyst. For example, Japan has almost no natural resources while Mexico has plenty. Statistics show that the Japanese are measurably wealthier than Mexicans. Similarly, North Korea is poorer than South Korea. East Germany created measurably less wealth than West Germany before their reunification in 1990. As such, resources are not the main factor favoring a country’s wealth, but the human resource is, its capabilities for work and creation are, as they translate into methodical ideas for creating material wealth in a people’s capitalism.
We can see a tendency, in many developed countries, towards achieving a synthesis between capitalism and socialism, as the state acts by simultaneously taking measures towards both centralization and decentralization, economic planning as well as encouraging individual economic freedom, as the state ensures the material basis for the economy and social protection, then reducing its intervention to favor the self-administration of companies and free initiative in the context of free (relatively autonomous) social organization.
This phenomenon can be named state capitalism, ordo-socialism, or post-globalism; as a synthesis of right-wing and left-wing policies, it would be a positive solution for Romania.
We consider that the transitional period in Romania has to end, by critically implementing within Romanian society a modern and efficient strategy for social reconstruction and economic recovery, for the unitary development of the country’s vital potential which would lead on the medium and long run to a regeneration in the people’s life conditions.
Certainly, humanity as a whole finds itself in a period of transition, but Romania cannot play a game by the rules of another game; any model for managing the interests and demands of citizens has to be correlated with and adapted to the actual conditions in society and the real possibilities of progress for Romania.
Romania finds itself is six types of crises:
1) social crisis;
2) administrative crisis;
3) moral crisis;
4) informational crisis;
5) management crisis;
6) institutional crisis.
Among these, we find the most serious to be the management, administrative, and moral ones.
By lack of a coherent and unitary management strategy we have witnessed decisional chaos, waste of resources, decreasing work productivity, disloyal competition, contradictions in economic development, decomposition of community spirit, and fragmentary and arbitrary reforms, based on incompetent state intervention, taken without creating a framework that would favor profound changes without affecting individual life security, individual rights, and self-realization of the individual at work.
In the same context, lack of a management strategy for development led to the crisis of control structures, of authority and good communication in all sectors of activity; as such, the functions of the so-called market economy weren’t well defined to ensure that the needs and interests of the human community were met without material prejudice or social disservices.
We consider that in the past people were told that they deserved everything while at the same time they received nothing. Now they are trying to take themselves what they need without offering something in return, and when they do not obtain what they want they blame it on the leaders. They are thus trying to play a modern game at high stakes by someone else’s rules.
Moreover, the management crisis led to corruption, disrespect for duty (by placing rights before duties), disrespect for the law, morality, or fairness within work relations and processes, as well as in the act of serving the good of the community.
We have to fight poverty and material insecurity by militating for a society characterized by mutual help, founded on solidarity, shared responsibility, civic sense, moral consciousness, justice, and individual enterprise.
We consider that the phenomenon of political capitalism generated poverty and mishandling of public funds; as a corrupt form of capitalism, it represented the main obstacle in the way of economic competition, free initiative, the formation of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the middle class.
We need an alternative, relatively new program, based on the values of democracy and militating for a society which is to ensure equal opportunity and equal rights. This form of equality is achieved through competition, but we nonetheless consider that for disfavored social categories or for groups whose interests, needs, and rights are at risk of being marginalized, the state must intervene in order to provide necessary goods and services, as well as other facilities which would put these groups on equal footing within a competitive framework. There is no freedom in poverty, or democracy without development and authority in the act of leadership. As such, we consider that we cannot build a democratic state governed by the rule of law from top to bottom, while sacrificing people for the sake of institutions, and experimenting with social and economic integration and disintegration.
We must treat information as value and source of power in order to create economic performance, market efficiency, social justice and social balance, healthy human civilization, to encourage individual initiative, and to increase the number of jobs. With respect to the latter aspect, we support job growth while respecting obligations in the field of social security, and a flexible system of work mobility. The lack of new solutions via creative efforts has led to an important loss in human capital, and lack of use of the young generating starting with school by not creating centers for social and professional training and job search.
A necessary solution is to give priority to measures that lead to the creation of value in the national economy over measures destined to increase consumption.
It is equally necessary to privatize and capitalize the whole economy for this will erase differences between rich and poor, but such privatizations should not be characterized, as in the past, by fraud, incompetence, and modern feudalism.
We want meritocracy in public life, as the credibility, authority, and legitimacy of politicians is decreasing in Romania.
Ideology must serve only as an instrument for adjusting differing and useful social policies, not as a justification for lack of solutions to people’s work and life problems.
With respect to the administrative crisis, we must promote the solution of administrative decentralization while undertaking institutional reforms if the following criteria are met:
– economic strength;
– good material basis;
– competence in managing resources;
– responsibility of decision making factors;
– a favorable political environment.
It should be stressed that it is not administrative decentralization that represents the condition for eliminating economic disparities and underdeveloped areas, but the other way around.
Romania has for its pro-Western strategy reference points and principles which were thus far desired and must now become imperatives for national development; its partners would be the centers of power that would appreciate its offer in terms of human, economic, informational, strategic, and creative potential:
1) correlating wealth with merit;
2) creating a justice house in order to promote public morals, mutual agreements, and elimination of conflicts between individuals as well as social groups, such that the government would oversee the nation’s morale and honor and the dignity of its citizens;
3) synthesis between capitalism and socialism;
4) integrated citizen engagement in forms of partial decision making and leadership; social autonomy must not lead to anarchy, but to group unity, self-organization, self-regulatory and orderly mechanisms;
5) respect for human rights and pluralism, the essence of democracy and rule of law;
6) the right for any citizen to refuse a negative process of social integration with vitiating effects;
7) ensuring some balance between production and consumption;
8) assistance, training, and mutual help for retired people, abandoned children, and pregnant women;
9) eliminating parasitical structures for accumulating resources and capital, as well as tax evasion, while taking measures for reducing fiscality;
10) converting economic growth into social well-being;
11) fighting economic discrimination;
12) introduction of taxes that are proportional to revenue and profit;
13) transparency and financial protection for state functionaries;
14) implementing laws for managing public funds and reinvesting capital by taking into account the fixed or variable investment indebtedness to the state;
15) debureaucratizing public services;
16) sanctioning social disservices and improving the quality of services, work, goods, and products in order to raise the citizens’ living standards;
17) establish by law values for law reform, institutions, fields of activity, and justice; justice should be validated by social ethics;
18) eliminating customs duties in agriculture (such duties raise the price of agricultural machinery and equipment);
19) eliminating the autarchy of the financial and banking system; banks must grant loans for industry and agriculture by taking into account the potential of these sectors;
20) founding a labor university for professional education, implementing participatory management, mediating and solving work conflicts.
Necessities for reform in Romania
We consider as necessary macroeconomic stability, the elimination of financial oligarchy, the reduction of excessive fiscality, structural adjustments to the economy, introducing new technologies for use in competitive industries, revitalizing agriculture, and supporting small and medium-sized enterprises.
It is equally necessary to attract investments by external lobbying while taking measures for decreasing bureaucracy and increasing transparency, innovation, and both horizontal and vertical communication.
We stand for guaranteeing property rights. Property must be exploited for everyone’s profit, within the conditions created by market rules.
The state budget must satisfactorily finance local budgets set on becoming autonomous, thus contributing to fighting bureaucracy and unjustified spending of citizens’ money. Budgetocracy has to end. Every local community should have its own budget and to manage public finance. Every city, commune, or village should be tasked, as far as it is possible, with managing public funds, fiscal issues in its jurisdiction, and contributing by proportional taxes.
If someone’s salary is below minimum living standards, then that person should pay no taxes. In our view, we need progressive taxation: taxes should increase to the extent surplus revenue exceeds minimum living standards. We must in no way organize capital against labor or labor against capital. Besides taxes on revenue, a tax on companies’ profits is required; revenue tax must not exceed the profit tax, which should also be proportional, according to the economic principle of legitimate profit. The more the profit of an economic agent is legitimate, the less it should be taxed; this is especially the case for contributing to national economic development, adding value to the field of activity, applying programs for development, investment, and professional training, as well as for applying national and European projects with minimum costs and maximum performance.
When it comes to law making, we consider that overlegislating creates confusion in interpreting the law.
Justice must be professional and independent with respect to political factors; it should exercise specialized constitutional control over law making and governmental decisions and force the state to pay social compensations in the case of restitutive justice. We also condemn law excesses where methodological norms for applying the law are lacking or are not assumed. Justice must compensate the victim since justice does not consist so much in punishing the wrongdoer as it does in compensating the victim and minimizing disservices to society. In many cases the law reverses value and effects according to the way it is applied. The laws are numerous, but social justice is lacking. The most corrupt state is the one with the most laws, especially if these laws are immoral or lack in quality or utility.
During Communism we had commutative justice (to everyone the same), which existed alongside with distributive justice (to everyone according to their needs). We consider that nowadays, in the era of disorderly capitalism proportional justice (to each according to their merits) is being unilaterally applied by disregarding distributive, complementary justice (to each according to their needs); the presence of the latter form of justice would mark a synthesis between capitalism and socialism.
Salaries should be directly proportional to the value and utility of each form of work and each social field of activity and should be correlated to results and individual performance.
Romania must not remain at the outskirts of the global system, but rather integrate via:
1) modern economic competition;
2) liberalization of trade without corruption or tax evasion;
3) limiting state monopolies to national strategic sectors; simplifying government and the act of governing;
4) informatisation and modernization of transport;
5) building the social state governed by the rule of law;
6) national, pragmatic, participatory democracy;
7) efficient human potential;
8) strong administration;
9) modern living standards, well-suited to people’s social demands;
10) adapting to the demands and challenges of the 21st century;
11) authentic capitalism;
12) the development of autochthonous capitalism;
13) controlling and limiting corruption by creating a socioeconomic and informational quasiimmune system;
14) conversion of economic growth into social well-being;
15) limiting organized interests by imposing democratic will;
16) unitarily applying the law and increasing judiciary independence from the executive;
17) encouraging individual social and economic freedom in the context of social responsibility, balance of freedoms, and convergence of legitimate interests;
18) implementing the pragmatic-utilitarian economic system;
19) using public policies preceding and following institutional and social reform objectives;
20) introducing business ethics while implementing advocacy policy;
21) generating security and solutions for international security and development.
We must set up a society governed by the rule of law via the implementation of ethical norms for civic organization and the integration of moral values into administrative order; every citizens has thus the duty of being useful to the community and must not inflict upon other people’s rights by causing them disservices. To that extent, education must be reformed, culturalized, morals must be socialized, and justice moralized. This would be a society based on meritocracy and individualism. We shall define the “polyvalent” security concept as being existential safety within zero level parameters, that is the normal functioning of every field of state action.
We must reduce both the costs of energy and its consumption. We should equally set up a hierarchy of production, transportation, and distribution of energy. Economic transactions involving electrical energy must be impartial.
To that extent, some strategic regulatory measures should be undertaken, such as:
– limiting state monopoly;
– reducing interest when granting loans;
– encouraging competition;
– investments for modernization and new technologies;
– facilitating the emergence of new producers and distributors;
– granting market entry and exit for producers.
The following decisions should be taken in the field of transportation:
– setting up transportation of any kind within the framework of a company;
– partial privatization;
– modernization of transportation;
– informatisation of transportation;
– modernizing and consolidating infrastructure.
The same principles should be applied to other institutions subjected to the process of decentralization, having for objective purpose cost reduction and expansion of capabilities: ports, the postal service, radio communication, transportation by train, hospitals.
A scientifically based economic remark
In Romania there is no real capitalism as long as there is no national capitalism and as long as the EU sees Romania as a consumerist society and an outlet market.
“The fundamental principles of capitalism are private enterprise and market freedom. It is free competition that stimulates the economy, improves product quality, and moderates prices. Nowadays, when the creation and purpose of enterprises fall gradually, in all Western countries, into a ‘national’ economic plan and thus responding to a certain will of planning by the state, capitalism evolves towards a synthesis with socialism (the state has the power to stimulate or not certain sectors of the economy, by granting or not loans to enterprises) while absolutely preserving private initiative. Once a high degree of state intervention has been reached, can an economic system no longer be considered capitalist? Neologisms such as state capitalism have been conceived as a reply to this problem.” (Larousse dictionary of philosophy)
We hope that some of the solutions presented here, as well as other critical reflections, will pave the way for real capitalism where everyone is an owner and creator of wealth and added value.
The USA, an important partner of Romania, can uplift profound Romania and make it great and proud again of its survival tradition in millenary evolution!
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
“Don’t force it, get a bigger hammer.” (The law of violence)
When classifying military conflicts, if we are to look beyond the balance of forces in the geopolitical and historical fields, no matter the nature and military means for carrying out wars (be it conventional or unconventional ones), the strategies being used, or the justifications employed by the world’s centers of power, we can name and outline two main categories of wars, by using the method of reduction:
– defensive wars, carried out according to national deterrence strategies, which are considered just wars;
– wars of conquest, which are considered unjust wars.
The latter category includes wars of economic disruption, interventionist wars (for various political reasons), ideological wars, economic wars, wars for the restauration of order and the rule of law, wars for imposing various interests, as well as for creating institutions and centers of power in a new administrative context under a new political leadership.
There are military conflicts generated by:
– geopolitical reasons;
– geoeconomical space;
– popular revolts;
– severe economic crises leading to the deterioration of the rationality and political legitimacy of the agents of power;
– the need to solidify credibility, authority, and security by compensating the unbalances between developed and underdeveloped regions through force, leading to new power balances on the international stage; it is known that war can create, as well as destroy civilizations, and economic changes are the cause as well as the result of average and large scale armed conflicts, on the short run as well as on the long run.
We can also name wars of national liberation, wars generated by local customs and anthropological considerations, cultural and religious wars, which assert state identity and independence.
The German philosopher Fichte said that “war is holy when independence, the condition for culture, is threatened”. In some countries there are constant conflicts between conservatives and progressives, traditionalists and reformers, moderates and radicals, being at risk for becoming isolated if radical ideas triumph or being considered fundamentalist if the opposite camp triumphs.
Necessary wars have had an important role in the history of mankind. Seeing that right before the beginning of the first world war the German chancellor said that the Constitution was no more than a piece of paper, we can conclude that Erasmus of Rotterdam was right when saying that war is “collective madness” (a well organized and directed one, we might add), having unpredictable consequences for future generations. The belief in the historical necessity of war is not, as many wrongly believe, unique to the German national-socialists. Taking into consideration the operationalization of the idea of aggression and the emergence of new political values, military conflicts and their effects have been defined and recorded, the consequence being the reconceptualization of war. Once war has been rationalized by ideological and pseudocultural means, world wars would enrich the art, science, theoretical experience, and military practices of carrying out war itself.
The belief in the historical necessity of war, with its numerous aspects and dimensions, has nonetheless ancient roots in history; we shall consider only the most important events, what is strictly necessary for the current theoretical approach.
As already mentioned, during global economic crises political rationality and political legitimacy deteriorate. At the same time there is a need for the consolidation of authority, credibility, and security in the context of an increasing global anomie. As such, it often happens that, when quality of life decreases, when social order is subverted, when global anomy increases, not to mention financial insecurity or the moral crisis affecting social relations, authority, credibility, and responsibility (coming from statesmen and obviously from the institutions charged with ensuring social equilibrium by correctly fulfilling the obligations towards the community whose vital interests must be protected for a good management of financial resources and especially public funds) become more relevant.
Bad management of resources, of needs of security and growth, of deficiencies in the development of various social and professional groups leads to conflicts between state and society, between individuals and society, or between various special or private interest groups whose supreme value is profit rather than long-term development. Loss of authority is associated with lower credibility with respect to people, institutions, statesmen, which decreases managerial ability with respect to implementing necessary reforms meant to ensure social balance, economic growth which increases human well-being, stability, and collective security, having for aim to augment a country’s defensive capabilities. Negation of authority is linked to economic, ideological, and moral crises, but such crises do not appear out of nothing. Revolutions and wars happen in the context of historical justifications espoused by society. According to certain scientists, crisis is a source of change as well as stability, and fluctuations are the foundation of any order. Revolutions and wars have had for secondary causes systemic crises which nowadays are mostly linked to the economic component, the one which dominates the structure of the system. We claim this due to the fact that economic crisis is the secondary cause of revolutions and wars.
The essence of systemic crises is the erosion of authority, authority linked to collectively held political values, beliefs, convictions, and mindsets, to a nation’s collective consciousness, its state of inertia and creativity, its morals, as well as innovation and reform. It has to be noted that all well-rooted social systems are threatened by the fact that peace can be assimilated to a state of inertia, and thus peace is but a well-planned and directed moment of preparation for war, which is to change a country’s political regime and lead to a redistribution of power following an axiological equation in the social and political fields, which reasserts the truth of the idea expressed above.
It has to be noted further that the state of social inertia is opposed to authority, reform, innovation, and individual creativity. It is apparently a vicious circle since any action requires and produces a reaction. As such, even if there is desire for changing the state of inertia, be it via a well run information system or via the mobilization of the human resource, depending on the national strategy for development, there will always be forces associated with resistance, opposition, and reaction. The contrast between reality and the ideal values upon which political praxis rests launches real reform, and the opposition between various social forces, as well as the social and political confrontation itself, lead to synthesis, cooperation, and absolute social order.
If we are to synthesize, ideologies, cultural systems, new doctrines and approaches, as well as management strategies centered on objectives and creation of alternative solutions are the cause for revolution, peace, and conflict, but also their effects. What we intend to prove is that any social conflict can be a cause for war as well as for a new direction of development.
Favoring change in times of peace has to be done gradually, via structures of authority, control, and communication which are to eliminate institutional decision making and functional chaos proceeding from divisions between the rulers and the ruled.
Slow but steady and pragmatic change via creative solutions and social and political innovations which are to overcome ideological dogmatism and temporary political interests, by the means of which the subordination of resources and social power to certain power structures is sought, cannot be an end in itself. It has to be noted that not only global, but also national economic crises, happen when:
1) the information system is not functional;
2) administration is either very centralized or weakened, or corrupt;
3) the state is dependent upon internal or external financial subjects;
4) shadow economy represents more than 5% of GDP, or there is a parallel financial system;
5) work quality and efficiency decreases, ceasing to be sufficiently competitive, productive, and successful;
6) monopolies control and divide national wealth;
7) there is disloyal competition;
8) there is inflation;
9) resources are wasted;
10) there is no middle class;
11) there is a lack of individual skills to face competition;
12) there is no strategy for managing the nation’s development in a unique and unitary way on the long run;
13) the government does not provide the goods and services needed to protect its vulnerable citizens, and to encourage individual social and economic freedom;
14) there is a moral crisis;
15) there is axiological warfare;
16) there is informational genocide.
Beyond all these factors, the existence of a dangerous conflict between economic power, political power, and military power, has to be underlined. Prevailing corruption can also lead to social conflict and the dissolution of state authority. With this picture in head, we realize that without a solid economy in case of war, without a resilient, almost natural self regulating economy, able to overcome successive structuring, restructuring, and destructuring cycles without state intervention, any country can find itself in a situation where it is not able to defend itself except for the case when it resorts to its last resource, the human resource; it is widely known that war or any threat mobilizes the psychological forces of human collectivities, creating a renewed solidarity and forcing people to understand and rise above tragic phenomena, since, as Hegel said, “only war can shake society, making it aware of itself”.
It has to be remarked that during economic crises, which are associated with social, educational, and civic underdevelopment, democracy itself is threatened for historical experience shows that development is a condition for democracy and not the other way around. To that extent, authentic democracy is par excellence social as it involves the concept and practice of extended participatory management. At the basic level, people can be governed because they have passions, as political thinkers in ancient China said. The political wisdom which, socially and militarily, first takes into account security and defense, can be reduced to the following law: politics has to be the art of equilibrating forces in order to ensure steady change, conciliate opposing forces, and mobilize the masses.
From this law is derived the necessary alternative: that the masses themselves make those unconventional revolutions in information, knowledge, creativity, and morality by the means of which multisystemic security policy aiming to prevent risks concerning the safety and balance of the social system, institutions, individuals, and national defense is achieved with the help of perfected political instruments. Economy can deter the manifestation of this revolutionary spirit if ideological crises occur and spiritual resources are not valued, leading thus to the emergence of one-dimensional men. We can only hope that economic crises, war threats, any type on conflict, lack of confidence in pseudodemocracy and abstract political theory will challenge the peoples enough for them to generate moral self-determination of free human individuality, creating new attitudes by liberating superior consciousness and creative energies, and thereby fulfilling the purely human nature of society, to paraphrase the great German creator Richard Wagner. The way to peace is through the unification of the material and the spiritual, tradition and progress, religion and science, East and West.
We underline that a society able to mobilize itself autonomously and voluntarily, by not disintegrating by virtue of lack of ideals or following overproduction, can maintain a state of civic consciousness, thereby creating an immune system leading to independence in an increasingly insecure and interdependent world.
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Italian Political Diplomatic Strategy In Romania At New Level Of Trans-economic European CooperationSeptember 28th, 2016
By Sebastian Sarbu.
Ambassador of the Intergovernmental Organisations Dr Andrea Tasciotti, accompanied by his deputy for international affairs, writer, journalist Col. Sebastian Sarbu, met with the Vice President of the Romanian National Liberal Party, Adrian Iurascu, to discuss strategic alliances, diplomatic policies, in supporting future elections in Romania. Among the topics discussed are the promotion of the banking innovative project “Bank of Tourism and Trade”, the “Port of Zeus” in Italy, and the European Capitals of Culture in Romania for 2021, in conjunction with those from Greece, and building of an international political axis that promote growth of the social ground, through the newly formed organization World Bilateral Agency . The meeting served to outline the agenda for the 2017 presidential candidate of the Dominican Republic Hipolito Polanco.
The International Activities carried Honorary Ambassador Dr Andrea Tasciotti, to “promote the socio-cultural exchange initiatives be put in place between the institutions, laying the foundation for a series of institutional twinning with different Italian cities and to liaise institutional with National and International Organizations European Union and Latin America, promoting the introduction of a citizenship of the Near protection of rights and Services Citizens of third countries, give way to mutual exchange of cultural activities, initiatives health relevance and encourage the International Cooperation Actions with the Americas, Asia and Eastern Europe, including riots Activities Humanitarian Aid who “are pleased to welcome you”.
At the end of a concrete representation of the needs widespread social, cultural, entrepreneurial intended to be created with the Natural and Legal Persons which is intended to be part of the development of Diplomatic Intergovernmental Platform for institutional cooperation, cultural and commercial center of the newly formed organization W.B.A. – World Bilateral Agency.
World Bilateral Agency is the first transnational, interinstitutional cooperation organization.
International Activities conducted by Ambassador Dr. Andrea Tasciotti, are designed to promote the socio-cultural interchange initiatives to be implemented between the institutions, sets the stage for a series of institutional twinning with other cities of Italy and to establish relationships with the Institutional National and International Organizations with the European Union and Latin America; also to promote the implementation of a Citizenship Proximity in Protection of Rights and Services Citizens of third countries, giving the course to mutual exchange of economic, cultural, initiatives of a health and encourage Shares of International Cooperation with the Americas, Asia and Eastern Europe, including Activities for Humanitarian Aid.
The diplomatic activities of Ambassador Dr. Andrea Tasciotti are very positive.He decided to permit by the fiduciary for international relations – promoting cooperation and social, business and cultural international Organizations and Companies abroad for the creation of the Intergovernamental Comitee for Diplomatic relations and Global Growth – WBA World Bilateral Agency – Program EXPO EXPERIENCES– ASTANA 2017 – DUBAI 2020.
The Organizations, Companies and Organizations Institutions can involvedin : investment program for constitution of WBA, promoting cooperation and social, business and cultural International Organizations and Companies for the creation of the Intergovernamental Comitee for diplomatic relations and Global Growth in every Country – WBA World Bilateral Agency – Program EXPO EXPERIECES MILAN 2015 – ASTANA 2017 – DUBAI 2020.
Currently this services are so listed:
AREA MEDIA & COMUNICATION
– Advertising and Communication Events
– Shooting WBE TV Channel USA 72 Countries Platform.
– Development Scouting Tenders European and International;
– Commercial Projects penetration in European and non European markets;
– Development projects Creative financing;
– Development projects for international cooperation;
– Development projects for the exchange of “best practices”
SEARCH AREA, BE-TO-BE AND COMMERCIAL PENETRATION
– Search Partner’s Commercial Customers Italian and foreign;
– Meeting to Be Well Fiera Milano;
– Opening of Incoming agencies in Italy and abroad;
– Legalization Enterprises Italian abroad and foreign companies in Italy;
– Legal and Consular Practices for Italian and foreign partners;
AREA SERVICES EXPO 2015
– Shuttle Airport Fair;
AREA E-PROCUREMENT BUYERS & SELLERS
– Accreditation portal E-Platform.
– Credit to the Portal Fashion TV
For this investment program for constitution of WBA is needed to an network of contacts, for participation in international affairs, where the embassies and foreign delegations asked to organize exhibitions in their country of residence.
World Bilateral Agency also preparing a number of initiatives for the Jubilee 2016 incoming tourism that will be divided among other fair exposition of the best local produce from June to September 2016, in which has a stretch of the Tiber to the event which already reopening the accessions to book exhibition stands.
Are expected to participate 33 million tourists”
Since 2000, arrivals in the capital exceeding 77%.
For the Romans are “a godsend” .
Boom of tourists for the Jubilee of Mercy. He waited more than 33 million people. The total expenditure is expected to be 8 billion Euros, of which 70% of visitors from abroad. And ‘This is one of the findings from the 5th issue of the journal’ Rome towards the Jubilee ‘prepared by Censis and presented today.
According to the analysis institute Rome in recent years, from 2000 to 2014, he has had tourist flows in excess of 77%. If in fact the appearances were in 2000 amounted to 7.5 million arrivals, in 2014 the figure has almost doubled to 13.4 million, an increase of 77.5%.
For the Censis last year “are almost 8 million foreigners arrived in Rome and accounted for 63% of tourists in the capital.” Among foreign citizens lovers of the Capital in the first place rank Americans (1.6 million tourists arrived in 2014), followed by the British (643,000) and Germans (634,000). Under the podium Spaniards (494,000), the French (485,000) and Japan (477,000). Also according to the research institute there is instead a record growth of arrivals in the last six years by Argentine (+ 181.7%), China (+ 117.8%), Turkey (+ 109.5%), Russian (+ 91.5%) and Poland (+ 83.7%).
The analysis points out that the “flows” are “increasingly differentiated” and as to the capital there is “an allure not only religious.” For the Censis therefore “the attraction of Rome is constantly growing. If everyone will do their part by operating accordingly, (Roma ed) can find a new push in the Jubilee proclaimed by Pope Francis, largely due to flows that will be activated from abroad. ”
Even the Romans have the same opinion. The 89.3% of Roman citizens it judges the tourists an opportunity: 61.7% because they generate employment and 27.6% and also because they allow the city to open up to the world. ”
The Diplomatic Network International and consists of those international organizations accredited to the Transparency Register European Union and the UN – NGO BRANCH and the Department for Economic and Social Affairs.
SEEN YOUR INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES :
Develop know-how and expertise of public administrations on enhancing organizational effectiveness through assisting of the decision making and accountability processes.
Improving the qualitative and efficiency results (from the democratic, governance, economic and human recourses point of view) in delivering public services in 5 counties/municipalities/communes within the project implementation period.
The expected results consist in :
Improvement of good governance and democratic decision making; strengthening the political, financial, and accountability framework; improvement of the organizational effectiveness.
Main activities : selection of 5 different pilot counties/municipalities/communes based on recommendation and invitation; implementation of an intensive training programme on PMI; implementation of PMI in 5 selected pilot counties/municipalities /communes; training program to follow-up PMI in public administrations (PMI training beneficiaries to identify further project ideas);drafting of self study materials on PMI; closing and conference including: workshop on project-ideas identified by the training participants for their respective municipalities/communes; feedback from the pilot municipalities; presentation of the value of good governance and the contribution of PMI.
The world of Labour, through EXPO EXPERIENCE Platform 2015 – 2020, would to create the base, through services and information, for the opening to international experiences inbound and outbound, inorder to create career paths and retraining of excellence in lack of real opportunities in the current jobmarket already saturated or deficiency of actual job opportunities after graduation or job reinstatement or re-employment situations.This makes define a possible future, more equitable and respectful of the common interests of the membership and the business community being guarantee of the established requirements of the welfare systems.
World Bilateral Agency want to give the humanitarian organizations and social interest, because the system can afford to close the gap between social policies inefficient and the correct allocation of services, through a representative acting as Organizations of interest and social pressure in the Institutions European, through experiences of Democracy Cooperative Organizations for global growth and development of the entire system. So, is needed of :
– Implementation of an International Agency for accredited work and through online training courses in the country of residence, and proposals for work in the country of arrival, lets you adjust the inflows of citizens of third countries;
– Participatory projects of creation of social tourism structures embedded in social canteens, with reflection to gender disability;
– Projects that promote Corporate Social Responsibility, through the establishment of solidary ventures including with the ausillio and financial support of Foreign Foundations, already active.
To answer this social mission they are being activated through the diplomatic representation abroad channels in various countries of Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Spain and South America: Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Dominican Republic and Asia: India and Qatar.
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
Between 4 and 5 of October, 1994, on a “black moon” night (Moon eclipse), a huge fire focused the public attention on two real estate properties located somewhere up in highlands, nearby Geneve, belonging to STO.
From under the smoldering Cheiry Farm ruins, the Swiss authorities would afterwards retrieve 23 bodies all wrapped in long knight mantles, while in the basement of the Salvan compound other 25 charred corpses were found. This toll would be later supplemented with other 5 dead bodies found in a house in Morin Heights, Canada, belonging to the same faction (among these latter even a newborn just a few months old). 23+25+5 equals 53.
It should have been 54 actually (a symbolic number). Due to mere exhaustion and the excitement of the great executioners, some confusion must have occurred on the premises. Some foreboding urged the last person – not in the least willing to die yet lured to Salvan place under some pretense – to flee. We are talking about a high rank member who ran in a hurry to exhibit in print his personal emotions in a book entitled The 54th. The author highlighted some very probable copycats of these collective departures, so called, in the STO occult idiom “transitions” – bound to Sirius, a double planet onto the cosmic sphere and known by the astrologists of Ancient times.
The Solar Templar Order is a branch of the Templars Sovereign Military Order founded in 1314, like the Black Order as well. David Livingstone has published a book on the Black Terror, the White Soldiers and the New Age in which he unveiled the connection between the Illuminati and the Templars, between Islam and Fascism. Basically the aim is antichristian and actually represents the occult stream and the siege mounted by the Gnosis against religion and tradition. Initially they were granted the Pope Honorius the IInd blessing and then of the Pope Innocent the IInd as well, so putting together the Benedictine branch thereof. These are based on Kabbalah, the Kathars’ mostly, the old ones basing themselves on geometry, hermetic , solar mathematics and were using the megalictic yard as measuring unit of land and other objects of interest. The megalictic yard is an instrument cut to measure precisely 82,66956 cm.
In 1314 Jaccques de Molay dies. At that point Johannes Larmenius is taking over the Templars’ Order and issues the Cartha Transmisionista Larmenius by which relays further on the Molay heritage. He rules as leader until 1324 when Jean Francois Thibault takes over the Order under his leadership until 1340. In 1349 an interesting figure becomes the chief supreme of the Order, namely Jean de Clermont, the first crusade being the Council of Clermont, which actually is bearing his own name. We further discover that even the dictator Salazar himself, and president of Portugal was a descendent off the Templars lineage from a certain Galeas de Salazar who led the Order between 1497-1516, a period of time when the Order was sworn to secrecy or acted under anonymity.
According to some historical – biblical anticipations with a quite solid hermeneutic basis, after an elapse of 1260 prophetic days, that is chronologic years, occurs the downfall of a mighty power in fight with another, one of them being described as a beast in between sea and land. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was destroyed in 1260 as a consequence of lack of capability from the part of Templar crusaders and the Mongols to co-ordinate their movements which led eventually to the Mamelucs’ victory (that is the Beast) in the battle at Ain Jalut in 1260. The anti crusade, anti Israeli and basically anti Christians assault on the Middle East lands relays to yet another beast whose deadly wound healed (as set out in the decoded Biblical text) namely the ISIS supported by Russia which rises up after 1260 years from the foundation of Rome, a Kabbalistic meaning because now the pagan Rome was in cross-hairs represented not by the popes theocracy but by the Templars synarchy which kept involving the popeship more and more in the political mush and especially so along the United States of America line. As a matter of fact, two events occurred after 1260 years from the Rome’s foundation. The coming up of a new Pope (2013-2014) and the birth of ISIS. The link between the Islamic Order of the Ishmaelites or the Order of Assassins which ruled the Arab world, the Asia and a portion of Europe and the Templars Order was proved by historians, its decay consisting in the creation of the Black Order of Nazi type, re-baptized today as the Circle of Poles. Also the economic sanctions against Russia enforced by the Occident seem like some deadly wounds which keep coming, all bespeaking of decay of Rome, that is the exact opposite of the 753 moment of its foundation, a perfect match as projection with the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Rampant Islam and an Imperial Russia with its airs of being the Fourth Rome. Jean de Clermont is murdered in 1356 as an outcome of failure to make peace between France and England during the One Hundred Years War times. Jean Arnold Clermont representative of Templars and Reform Church in the Saint Egidio community held on September 8, 2015 at the Orthodox cathedral in Tirana during an ecumenic meeting a speech on peace recalling the existing conflicts. This happening on the very eve of Pope Francisc’s visit to the USA in the same year. Interesting enough the restoration of the Templar Order in 1960 is taking place after 700 years since the Christ’s death plus the Kabbalistic number 666, a symbol of the turned upside down Christianity of Baphomet, an outstanding and main figure with the Templar Order. Baphomet is deemed as being the true Christ in the aftermath of developing materialism at the same time with the occultism in France in the neo modernist age in the XVIIIth century, being assigned to him the digits carrying biblical esoteric meaning payloads.
As a matter of fact, in 2015 occurs the 666 years jubilee from the priorate of Jean de Clermont in 1349, deemed as the counterpart or the symbolic equivalent of Pope Francisc, after the re-foundation of the Order back in 1960. One should say, however, that according to the Templars’ tradition of the Order, 54 is the number of the first hoard of Templars (among others, STO boasts the self assigned title of Neo Templar) – which after the dissolution of their Order, as they refused to repent and disclose its secrets, were burnt on pyre on May 10, 1310. But the actual toll of knights – hermits put to death into the flames by Handsome Phillip seems to go as high as 138 (a surprisingly small figure if we take into account the ripples stirred worldwide by this wholesale execution). While another important number for a couple of esoterists is 144, as a result of a deeply murky speculation. In both cases, one may sum up the deduction that some “voyagers to the other world” – either willingly or not – were missing at the head count. Whoever they might have been, they have been known as expected on the premises.
On the other hand, and quite strange both for initiated ones and for the profane, those deceased in October 1993 had not been neither hippies, nor junkies, they were not coming from some easily manipulated social milieu, neither from the lower end society and poorly educated, on the contrary most of them studied in universities, as artists, high ranking state officials (and their families too), among the bodies from Salvan were even found two of the three Superiors from the so called Temple’s Synarchy. We are talking about Jo Di Mambro, STO’s founder and Imperator and also his Great Master, the homeopathic doctor Luc Jouret. Accused in the beginning by prosecutors and press for venal behavior and fraud, subsequently it was proved – beside some justified felonies – that they did not flee the ordeal, but quite the contrary, they had assumed the risk of practical experimentation of the magical techniques preached by themselves, and making no attempt to physically skip the “transition” process. In spite of all these warnings both implicit and explicit and albeit strikingly obvious that – just to observe a numerological feature of symbolism – not all departures bound to Sirius had taken place without violence, some of them being “helped” (eight rounds in the head or plastic bags) the respective local police officials in charge made efforts to mishmash the case , exposing it just under its penal aspect only. Insufficiently prepared, the prosecutors of the first “transition” were shy to engage in a research with esoteric flavor. They totally disregarded the documents left “pending into the breeze” within the two subterranean temples miraculously left untouched by blazes. The press released absolutely nothing until today about the five – sometimes six – texts known under the generic title The Testament which Jo Di Mambro and Luc Jouret had care to share postmortem, by way of an “affiliate”, in more than one thousand copies.
In fact, the scheme ran as follows : A Templar by a Pope after the Restoration of the Order (1960) So in the times of Pope John the XXIIIth the Templars Order was restored, symbolically represented by Jacques de Molay in the Templars’ camp, followed by the Pope Paul the VIth represented by Jean Larmenius. The Pope John Paul the IInd came as representative of Jean Francois Thibault of Alexandria. The calculus of those belonging to the Solar Temple Order a bit too mathematically accurate actually, and lacking a Kabbalistic relevance appropriately applied with respect to the esoteric traditions has led to a computation on the death of Pope John Paul the IInd in 1994 by enclosing also the equivalent period of time when the order was ruled by Jean Francois Thibaud (1324-1340), that is 16 years. Their recklessness consisted basically in making of a sacrificial rite in which they subjected themselves to the ordeal on purpose for further salvation of its sanctity.
Their karmic concepts consisted in compromising the acts of the Traditional Templar Order, turning them into fanatics or fundamentalists.
The number 53 accurate, as a matter of fact referred to 53 years elapsed since the reinstatement of the Order in 1960 which is significantly relayed to the Pope Benedict the XVIth resignation and the decay of Christian Rome as we proved. Then, a second shocking event occurred: On December 21, 1995, in a glade located this time in the French mountain Vercors, exactly in a point called The Devil’s Hole (Le Trou du Diable), not far from the Eagle’s Rock (Le Rocher de l’Aigle), have been found, set in the shape of a star and all wrapped in white ceremonial cloaks called in STO lingo “talars”, other 16 charred bodies (more accurately 15+1) of some affiliates, set out bound to a journey to catch up with the pilgrims of the first “transition”. Discovered at the winter solstice, however these had set out for journey six days before: December 15. In a night when the Moon’s aspects seemed more appropriate for a “transfer”.
A third transition had taken place in Canada at the time of the spring equinox. Why in March? Because this month represents in many ancient religions the cyclic reborn of the nature and the beginning of the year. Also, because on March 14, 1244 200 the Perfect ones, the kathars very elite, besieged by an obtuse society, better preferred to set themselves afire! And, because, in the same month the Great Master Templar Jacques de Molay was burnt on pyre.
In these days as well, the affiliates were celebrating the birth date of Emanuelle Di Mambro, Jo’s daughter, declared by him a “cosmic child”, that is born in absence of the sexual act, by sheer “theogamy”.
Direct consequence: the suicide of those 5 occurred between March 21 and 22, 1997 – an absolutely extraordinary night since the solstice was coincident with a Moon eclipse and the passage of Hale-Bopp comet, visible on the terrestrial firmament just once after the elapse of 25 centuries.
For the time being the number of trials would have reached 74, or so they say. For now… The aforementioned events do not have the purpose to decipher in minute the encoded messages and the symbolic payload thereof, obviously, championing life as raw energy and transcendental trek: based on these “extremists of the occult” many books could be written thereof.
“The playing with demons”, the amalgam, the reckless manipulation of the Ceremonial Magic, represent a huge danger. Because, it is obvious, the final target of the STO members was not and is not – as widely acclaimed– neither money nor snatching the power, at least not in the worldly meaning of the term anyway. They were not loyal to any faith or confession whatsoever as defined by some of the currently existing Church.
The very aim of the classical Templar Order was and will ever be re-building the Temple of Solomon.
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
Iran is the key to stability in the Middle East, the only state upon which depend regional security and peace. By taking into account the development of the Islamic State, informally backed by radical religious and political circles in Iran, attacks on Israel and US military navy in the Mediterranean are being taken into consideration.The plan has been well conceived. At first there have been cleansing and extermination of Christian elements in North Africa and the Middle East, including the actions of the “brothers” from Boko Haram.Now Israel and American interests in the area are again the subject of threats which can destabilize the region. It is a complex situation, which from a geopolitical, geostrategic and economic standpoint looks identical to the situation which caused the Gulf War in the 90s. It’ s like a real war as hypothesis or a very possible an war game. Russia exploited this kind of regional crisis and it is unpredictable the next evolutions.
The elimination of UN sanctions on Iran nuclear program it is a step for stop escalation of any potential clash.
It is practically the main operating matrix with the same hidden operational forces playing the strategic game. It is clear that ISIS has the capacity to attack NATO and US warships in the Mediterranean. The area is close and for a regular army lonely wolves not needed. It they haven’t acted yet it is because Iran has opposed it, a country with which the Islamic State is acting in coordination. Iran has thus assured them that at the right moment it will attack American and NATO warships, since its military capabilities are more advanced than those of the Islamic State, with which it acts complementarily in the strategic field. Moreover, Iran is fond of its national sovereignty and aware of its geostrategic/strategic role in the region. Until the moment of escalation of the ever tensed military situation, Iran has started using the energy weapon and the means of economic warfare. Practically, Iran has been practising for the last several months a price war in the oil and energy field of interest, thus explaining the fluctuations of the price of oil on the market.
As a matter of fact, Iran is in an economic war with Saudi Arabia by using the energy weapon, its actions being coordinated with Moscow’s. Russia had accused several times Saudi Arabia that it generates the energy crisis and chaos through certain mistakes and arbitrary interventions. Even though done via unofficial channels, such as the voices of technocrats, we are aware of how serious the situation is and how important are the interests that are connected to this both strategic and complicated area of the world.
Iran is Russia’s strategic ally in the region, as Saudi Arabia is the ally or strategic partner of the USA. From this stem the rivalry and competition which can turn into direct confrontation. Iran is using the economic weapon until the military confrontation with American and NATO forces, seeking to profit geostrategically from blocking the Hormuz Strait, which would be a serious blow to the entire Euroamerican economy.
This objective of the Iranian leadership has been pursued for a long time.This is indirectly encouraged by Russia, which has always been an advocate for Iran, with the purpose of controlling the political and military situation of the balance of forces in the region and of profiting economically from it.
Recently, Iran has launched rocket attacks against several American ships close to its territory (the Hormuz Strait). The United States have accused Iran of dangerous actions and have hardened the sanctions regime imposed on this country in the field of rocket acquisitions.The offensive continues and the threatening Rohani has announced the industrial development of a new generation of rockets as a response to US sanctions.
The execution of the 47 terrorists in Saudi Arabia is the icing on the cake in the matter of the increasingly tense relationship between Iran and Saudi Arabia.
The execution of the Shiite leader of Iranian origin Al Nimr has provoked a bellicose reaction from Iran, which warned that Saudi Arabia will pay a heavy price for this crime. The consequences of this last destabilizing and miscalculated action are particularly serious for the future evolution of the regional security and peace.First of all, a generalized military conflict between Saudi Arabia and Iran can begin at any moment and it will be preceded by an economic blockade as a form of retaliation, on the background of increasing tensions and violence between Sunnis and Shiites. Sabotaging external trade has been practised in international relations in the last couple of years, if only to give Turkey as an example.
Moreover, Iraq threatens with retaliation against Saudi Arabia. Irak was a favorable space for proliferation of the islamic and international terrorism who not have a good, safe and responsible governance.
An unprecedented case, there have been protests even in Indian Kashmir.
It is worth noting that these social protests, going even up to the diplomatic and government levels, are being organized by the Shiite community, which comprises Nigeria, Bahrain, Syria, India, Iraq, the UAE, Iran.
The most numerous Shiite community can be found in Iran, followed by Iraq. It is not worth neglecting that pro-Iranian Hezbollah, affiliated to Tehran, is a traditionalist Shiite organization which following the execution of the Shiite leader has threateningly condemned the USA and Saudi Arabia.
It is not a coincidence that Israel is increasingly targeted by terrorist attacks even in Tel Aviv, while Turkey has an extremely duplicitous external policy, the presidential discourse containing an increasing number of antisemitic statements. It is clear that there is regional instability in the Middle and Near East, as well as the whole of North Africa, with unpredictable consequences. Any scenario has to be taken into account, especially since the situation specific to the Gulf Wars can repeat itself.
The United States must not forget that it was precisely this sectarian conflict between Sunnis and Shiites that perpetuated the Iraqi civil war, by complicating it and generating terrorism to a certain extent.
These are well-defined ethic and religious communities. It is upon the wisdom of the USA to manage the new situation so that it does not turn into a new war theater and not even a conflict hotbed.
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
Abstract: Information war represents a real non-conventional threat which in the context of the technological revolution of telecommunications and modern electronics has found its place as an instrument of prevention of classical warfare, but does not exclude conventional warfare, fought with the means of organized defense.
The globalization of information and the needs of information protection of society at a global scale are the necessities of the moment, demanding a collective approach.
Keywords: information age, technological revolution, globalization, information protection, NATO, electronic warfare, information operations
Identified and quantified at the middle of the seventh decade of the twentieth century, information war was considered a type of war with the potential to become as important as land, sea, air, or space war. In order to synthetize, it could be said that the verbs most suited to summarize these definitions are: to intercept, to transmit, to deal rapidly with a piece of information, to obstruct the adversary. The technological revolution in the field of computer science and communications has increased the importance of information, which led to the collection, processing, storage, and dissemination of information at greater distance to an ever larger number of users.
At the general level, information warfare in the strict military sense could be defined as the entirety of information operations used at tactical, operative, and strategic levels, during peace time, as well as during escalation of crisis and conflict, with the purpose of attaining some objectives or influencing certain targets. The military component of information war, the command and control war, has, in NATO’s vision, the following meaning: “the integrated use of all military capabilities, including security operations, deceit, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and physical annihilation, supported by all the sources of intelligence and communication and information systems, to prevent access to information, to influence, deteriorate or destruct the capacity of command and control of an enemy, while keeping one’s own military capabilities secure from similar actions”.
According to some of our specialists, information war is defined as “the way in which a society, organization, or individual, well-adapted or not to the new information wave, try by all means to acquire information supremacy and affect the opponents and partners’ information, the information processes and systems, while undertaking actions to defend their own information processes and systems”.
An interesting and surprising definition, given by the political analyst Thomas Rona, subsumes the scale and moments of information war, which represents the entirety of “tactical, operative and strategic level confrontations over the whole spectrum of peace, crisis, crisis escalation, conflict, war, ending of war, reconstruction, undertaken by the parties, adversaries or enemies, using informational means to attain their objectives”.
We can consider information war as a new form of war by considering its means, and at the same time, an old form of war by considering its basic concepts (the Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu made reference 25 centuries ago to “cunning”, the art to deceive, to the necessity to prevent the opponent from correctly evaluating a certain situation).
Many definitions of information warfare, given in order to encompass the content and characteristics of this concept, insist on the fact that this form of warfare is based on defensive or offensive actions, which are part of an overall strategy, which supposes not only a series of technical means, but also a number of operations which utilize the techniques and available information according to the purpose, actions which ensure an advantage of information superiority over the adversaries or even the allies.
In the military field, information war can be likened to an iceberg whose top can be seen, but the essential part is hidden and shrouded in secrecy.
Information war encompasses “any action destined to annihilate, exploit, deteriorate, or destroy the enemy’s information and information functions, to ensure the protection against similar actions, and to fully utilize one’s own information capabilities”.
Nowadays, information warfare has become more and more attractive from a military standpoint, given the increase in the number of targets that are vulnerable to information attacks and the increasing need for these targets to be defended. In the new circumstances, we can see that neither time nor the quantity of information can be a key factor in the political and military decision making processes. As such, during conflictual situations, adversaries will have simultaneous access to enormous quantities of information, but it is the one who acquires the most precise and complete information and has an efficient system of processing and protecting it that will have the advantage. The way events evolved during the last few years certainly proves that we are assisting at the materialization of a new type of aggression, of a new type of war, an invisible war whose characteristics and forms of manifestation, subtle and efficient, greatly surpass the traditional, classical ones. Moreover, information war is relatively cheap when compared with other types of war, allowing developed countries, as well as interested terrorist groups, to acquire capabilities in this field and to use them according to their purposes.
Alvin Toffler said: “if you are not interested in war, then war will be interested in you”. The globalization of information, the need for information protection, not only of institutions, but society in its entirety, transforms information in a strategic weapon in the competition over open spaces between global centers of power in all fields of activity.
The particularly complex nature of information war is defined by the following factors: the impossibility of exact identification of opponents; the multitude of targets; the lack of spatial limitations; the lack of fast methods of fixing dysfunctionalities; the lack of political limitations; utilizing relatively simple, relatively cheap, and accessible technology; the increasing need for information; the lack of geographical limitations; the impossibility of establishing clear and precise responsibility.
Information war is accompanied by new means of action/influence which elude conventional military power and national borders. Many of these means act upon the direction, the level of command and control, of will, of information, as well as upon essential elements of national infrastructure.
The essential element of information warfare is represented by the avoidance of conventional warfare, of human life loss, and material damages, by using these new means situated at the borderline between the conventional state of war and the conventional state of peace. It tries to influence the way systems work instead of destroying them, and it represents an evolution from the state of organized violence to the state of hostile influence.
Nonetheless, information warfare must not be mistaken for image war or classical propaganda.
It is necessary to implement the concept and laws regarding the control of technology and information, as well as the concept of information security, by developing convergent social mechanisms which would generate “close protection society” expertise.
Information operations. The operations triggered by information warfare belong to the following categories: computer hacking; human spies; spy satellites; interceptions; video surveillance cameras; electronic warfare; physical destruction of communication components or energy systems; document forgery; perception management; psychological operations; viruses, worms, Trojans, fake viruses; theft of commercial secrets; interception of personal data; counterfeit emails; as well as many others.
By their simple enumeration, we can conclude that they can be used during real wars (such as Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq) or so-called “cold wars”. Depending on the circumstances, some of them are treated as crimes, others are legal but ethically condemnable. Some parties or governments consider them normal practices. In the military field they are assimilated to conflicts. In any event, all they have is common is the purpose of exploiting the informational resources in the advantage of the attacker and the disadvantage of the other party, the attacked or the defender. We can thus conclude that the information operations that are specific to this type of war are both defensive and offensive.
The defensive ones integrate and coordinate politics, procedures, actions, personnel, and technology, in order to protect and defend information and information systems. They focus on protecting one’s own information, information-based processes, command and control systems, and communications and information systems. The protection has to be suited for any type of friend or foe and any situation (peace, crisis, conflict) and has four components: the protection of the information infrastructure; the discovery of attacks; restoring vital functions; and reacting to attacks. The integration of all these components is essential.
The offensive information operations imply the integrated use of designated capabilities and activities, supported by information activity (intelligence), for the purpose of adapting to friendly or enemy decision making factors and promoting specific objectives. The basic purpose of this type of operations is to influence the knowledge and beliefs of decision making factors, to reduce their will and ability to decide and thus disrupt the decision making process. The offensive capabilities of information operations focus on information, on the processes which are based on information, on the systems of command and control, and on the communications and information systems. It is for this purpose that it is necessary to design them at the technological level that is specific to the entities involved in and particular characteristics of the conflict.
These two components are complementary and ensure the accomplishment of the purpose of information war: the information-based domination of the enemy. In the near future, these will likely be more than complementary, by the means of integration of one into the other. In these conditions, the efficiency of the security of information systems will depend upon intelligence, and the efficiency of intelligence upon the security of information systems. Combat actions after the operation “Desert Storm”, then considered a basic example of future warfare, in strategy, operational art, and tactics, became a lot more decentralized, independent, direct, mobile, fluid, and efficient. They rely enormously upon the information system, the high degree of technicity of the available means, the existence of great power and precision intelligent weapons, the possibility of carrying out simultaneous, fast actions across the entire field of operations. Moreover, the most recent wide armed confrontations have shown that, in what concerns the way of planning, executing, and leading military operations, using information as a weapon confers it the primary role in decision making and ensuring success, while leading to essential changes in the way military operations are being carried out.
As such, the fundamental principle according to which “the information war is a permanent war” has to be implemented as a security doctrine. It is necessary to build “electronic defense walls”, on several complementary levels, in order to protect national structures.
It can thus be said that the new concepts and military technologies are being developed and experimented upon in a continuous manner, allowing developed countries to enter in the 21st century, in the Information Age, and ensuring technological and doctrinal advantages hard to equal by the other countries.
The technologies of the Information Age will completely revolutionize the manner in which military actions are being carried out and will change the face of conflicts/wars. The most significant advantages in the means of carrying out wars will arise from the quantity, quality, the high degree of processing and using information. Leading technologies and information, accompanied by adequate military strategies and doctrinal concepts, competent military leaders, professional personnel, high level instruction and efficiency of armed forces, will lead to real power. The price of progress will be huge, but once paid, it will offer extraordinary advantages, possibilities and gains to those brave enough to pursue it.
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By military analyst Sebastian Sarbu.
As almost everyone knows the USA in mutual consent with the NATO have decided to reinforce both the defence and the rapid response capability across the space of interest located in East Europe and the Baltic Countries by dispatching military units, heavy weapons and the famous F-22 jet fighters.
The multipurpose F -22 jet fighters using Stealth technology belong to the invisible airplanes category (non detectable by radar) and of high manoeuvrability.
Their advantage consists in the fact that they are able to intercept enemy broadcasts, use electronic weapons and carry out air-to-air / air-to-ground war missions, which makes the critical component of the American tactical air forces.
The truth should be voiced out, however: in a modern warfare when the military high tech prominence may not be claimed by just one single state (power) the F-22 jets (namely Raptor) are harmless.
The Department of Defence of the USA in agreement with the American Congress actually banned the production of the F-22 multipurpose jet fighters, since 2009 due to its high costs, lack of air-to-air missions and the delay of operational programmes in the Russian – Chinese fifth generation.
In short, the F-22s are just Russian – Chinese make jet fighters enhanced by the Americans.
Therefore in 2009 a decision was taken to cut off the F-22 fighter jets production line. They have been used however in zones presenting no big and intricate strategic issues, for quick-in-quick-out and surgical forays. They have been mabe quite popular to the public albeit the specialized media know these are just a sort of drones made obsolete now by the F-35 models featuring a higher speed while endowed with Stealth (invisible) technology already produced in series, as their costs growing cheaper.
The F-35 jet fighters (namely Lightning II) are being produced in the USA and the Great Britain and are part of the Joint Strike Fighter Program. They are truly sophisticated and lethal, being conceived as strategic single engine bombers, undetectable by radar, used also by the US Marines and being readily available in the Nuclear Triad (destroy- naval-air- ground, synchronous interceptor).
Te gradual and geostrategic defence strategy is also applied in this brand new security concept.
Under the armoured vehicles category, the NATO provided the American made tank Abrams, scheduled to join the Romanian tank, TR-85M1. Are these a comparable match against the Russian tanks? The best schools in the world where the armoured vehicles are concerned are the German and the Russian ones the experts say…
Officially, the latest breaking in the world of tanks are the M1 Abrams (USA), Challanger (England), Leclerc (France), Leopard (Germany), Merkava (Israel) and T-90 (Russia). Not long time ago in this select company sneaked out its way the Romanian tank TR-85M1.
Since 2000 the Great Britain developed a new missile system. The top system is the Aerospatial ANS (Supersonic Anti-Ship Missile). They are radar undetectable anti-ship stealth missiles that qualified with the highest ECC security score (Electronic Countermeasures) and decoy devices used during the anti aircraft offensive operations. The effective range of these missiles is 180 km. They are ultra high speed supersonic weapons which dwindle to practically nil the risk of interception.
Another high performance tactical missile used by the UK navy is the ASTER. This is actually nothing but a conventional aerodynamic control system able to intercept and destroy other foe missiles. It actually is a high speed (about 800 meter per second) combo action on multi target missile system.
Another high precision flavour equally deadly able to mount devastating bombing is the MLRS (Multiple Launch Rockets System). Each missile thereof is able to “breed” 50 baby bombs able to destroy top shelf tanks. This system may guide missile to the enemy targets at a 12 per minute cadence covering a 30 km range.
The lower costs of this missile system makes it the best option to pick where the anti ships and “ground” missiles solutions are concerned. One should note that a truly highly performance missile is the product of the defence industry and once its production being made obsolete and out of production it turns out as a second hand weapon due to higher costs or poor performance ( the absence of tactical missions, lagging of programmes required for mounting an operational status etc.), as in the F- 22 jet fighter case.
So the developed countries under NATO deploy non only stealth jet fighters which incorporates stealth technology but also invisible missiles which are rather unknown to the public.
The Great Britain also developed anti radar tactical air tech bases systems. The question is when are they going to be used ? Is the Russian offensive a first line strategic threat for the NATO?
It is deemed as fact that Russia is determined to begin the military offensive. It was not a mere coincidence the General Iabukov’s statement concerning the despatch of troops on the NATO border and mounting of nuclear missiles units in Kaliningrad area. General Iabukov is the manager of the Direction of Military Troops Inspection in the Russian Department of Defence.
Therefore it is his job to inspect the troops, so that by the end of the two months mobilization of the Russian Federation’s army of reservists the report of evaluation was received which cleared the way to a military solution concerning the positioning of the Russian Army in a first stage, an accounted for fact in the statement of this general.
It is clear that the Euro American zone and the Euro Asian stepped in a new stage of polarization in the competition and confrontation process. The economic jolt powered lately by Greece against the European Union, a country already wooing public courtship to the Russian Federation, is currently sketching the settings of an asymmetrical warfare scenario masterminded by Russians.
The Russian nuclear missiles may break the strongest anti missile shields in our days, according to the Moscow based propaganda, yet the highest risk is not this one, however.
The superiority of the NATO and the USA combined military high tech powered by a Defence budget and warfare expenses dwarfing by far any other competitive power is shunted by a possible latest breaking economic European crisis turned global in the wider context of modern globalization. The all-out enthusiasts of the NATO military upper hand stance failed to take into the equation the economic key factor which may undermine the overall sustainability leverage of the states on the long run of a non conventional warfare situation.
At the same time we’d rather think about deeply on the economic and political changes within the EU area and the geostrategic threats aiming to hold in check the NATO’s proactive security policy.
As I said, if the economic and political warfare of strategic flavour marks its foreseen effect by destruction ( corruption) of the enemy from the inside, the use of the conventional weapons turns out to be obsolete and out of scope and practically useless.
The nuclear threat is part of the nuclear discouraging plan endorsing a purely defensive role rather than an offensive thrust. The actual, real targets are strategic while the direct, next door consequences for the population are economical.
The total war scenario should be regarded as a last card Russia might eventually play yet only in the context of a grosso modo escalation of Western military moves.
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
At the very foundation of all the created systems lays the principle of power. The Prince (the leader) who, in order to humiliate the high and mighty, is raising up the people, shall fall, he who, in order to humiliate the high and mighty, humiliates the people, shall raise to prominence, the sages in Ancient China used to say. For the good-for-nothing citizens, a strong state, for the strong citizens, a good-for-nothing state. The people is malleable when living in austerity and quite rebellious when it got the taste for luxury. When weak, it is submissive to law; when strong, it attempts to defy law. In modesty it serves its nation well; ambitious, it no longer obeys its commandments. In order to lead the people one should conform to their own nature, their ways and their feelings. The leader has founded his rule on a society turned slave, his power on the weakness of the world, his own moral on the immorality of the individuals, his wisdom on the mobs’ ignorance, his truth on his subjects’ lies. All those who obediently accept the authority’s commands are not free men with a self consciousness of their own, influencing the political power in taking abusive and wrong decisions, against the background of a tremendous social irresponsibility and of a retrograde mentality.
This fact reveals the status of utter ignorance, incertitude, and also the incapacity to assume the destiny, respectively of the duty to the society, starting from the moral, professional consciousness, abiding by the natural laws and the legal norms, outrunning the spiritual – social inertial status. As a social agent, knowing the collective values, rules realities and being loyal to the real requirements which must be fulfilled in the social life, according to the tradition, education and the need for general progress, each one should conscientiously take and share proactive part at the making of the society’s own vocation, of its independence from politics. Let us not forget what Napoleon Bonaparte said, at Erfurt in 1808: ,,the destiny is the politics”. However there are risks of the society to turn into a political state, as far as the state subordinates the services, resources, institutions, undermining the social thrust of every individual in order to use it in favour of some privileged political and economical structures, so creating an array of negative dependencies and criss-crossed interdependencies, by social atomisation, for domination, while the society itself is being reduced to mere amnesic automata, fated to mass amnesia.
The political power contains an occult dimension, which conspired for ages against freedom, independence, equality and fraternity of both individuals and societies. These occult circles acted in favour of the organised special interests, athwart with imposing the democratic will power of the society. The occult dimension inside the political power represents the most corrupted and arbitrary means of action, prone to introduce fake values such as the ethical relativism and the utilitarianism, by which one pursuits a transformation of the society into a concentration universe, hijacking healthy laws, the moral belief and counterfeiting the truth of conscience and the historical truth as well.
The political power foments and feeds on the vices of the society, the moral and professional corruption, social, administrative and economic corruption, it feasts on anti social deeds, on bogus information which actually distorts the reality, it thrives on the cultural obscurantism and other deeds meant to destroy the reason, to weaken both the will power and the psycho-moral capacity of telling truth from lie, being also a bogus indicator means wrongly pointing to other cause except the true one at the basis of the destructive phenomena in the society.
The political power based on financial and informational resources, exploits the inequalities of just any kind between individuals and maintains the chaos, the poverty, and the conflict status and permanent warfare among either individuals or groups of individuals in order to weaken the social cohesion, the civic spirit, for further manipulate the masses bound to a wrong direction, aiming to secure the supremacy of some group, of some egocentric network. Out of the so maintained chaos and underdevelopment, one wishes to justify the creation of some institutions, or else some interventions of those already existing with the purpose of undermining the common wealth, the social strength and drain the social drive, the entire wealth of the legitimate human society, man growing increasingly dependent on structures, mega-structures, anti social government measures, new obligations and also further drained by private, autarchic economic agents, who are hell-bent in pursuit of the particular interest gain with the reciprocating loss on the social interest side, building up disservices to the sound, genuine citizens’ interests.
All the structures, agencies, firms, projects and services are created, in a budding society still underdeveloped, at great costs and sacrifices from the society, in a most undemocratic manner, since the projects, necessities, the changes made by the political power’s agents did not take into account the majority’s will power and the participation of the individual human values in the act of the decision to pick a path in economic development, and also where the wealth fair-share was concerned as well. Further related to this, the society, due to its own trends of becoming, should have some inbuilt control of sorts, cutting off the necessities, projects, unrealistic, artificial and unproductive which target on getting rich some selected set of businessmen, the financial oligarchy, operating like a state within the state, hampering the general prosperity, fuelling on both local egoisms and the worldwide plutocracies, with dire consequences on national security.
The division of the national wealth based on political criteria, of the organisation of institutions and the society’s human activities sub-tire structures, represents the most severe abuse of power of a cosmopolitan policy, actually to be construed as mere indifference fro the mother-country, mistrust for the creative capacities of its own nation, spitefulness for the material and spiritual values of its own people, for the looking-forward national traditions.
There is a human society, legitimate, based on rights and democratic on an evolutionary trend, whose finality is the rights-based state, meant to decentralize the power resource for the entire people and a reactionary one oriented “against the grain” against progress, creation, reform and freedom of human society, of the individual nurturing authentic moral feel and democratic thought pattern, and this retrograde society proactively exercises the act of governing by aggression, issuing unfair laws or taking up anti social measures, non constitutional, respectively, which lead to restrictions, poverty, misery, and damages to the human fair rights. So the political state comprising mostly reactionary forces, lives exclusively on vices, the moral-professional corruption of the reactionary society unable to evolve, doubling up the scale of mediocrity with the nullity’s one, while the society’s truly healthy virtues originate in the human individuality.
By the acts from the reactionary society the state creates a concentric circle of dependencies which put the yoke on the true liberty, the personality and the need for progress of the human society with the democratic will power. Since the virtue’s dwelling place is to be found in the quite outstanding individuals performing apostolic workloads and in high value creators, but scattered in the depraved social and political conditions, the reactionary state is building up pressure on the reactionary society, in order to corrupt, by constraining force even the upright conscience of these exceptional men or else for using the leverage of their experience, talents and skills in Machiavellian political schemes and purposes, with unjust finality. All these should happen if the psychic and moral thrust in these men won’t be stronger enough to overwhelm the politicians’ arbitrary ideas and interests. As a remark, a single man nurturing one single belief is stronger than 99 animated by different interests.
As to the social network, this signifies a sum of individuals, collectives, roles bound together by one or more social networks, actually comprising the said net. For example: the relatives, the communication, the friendship, the authority, and in politics the client-to-client approach (client-based capitalism). The small groups, the institutional structures describing individual points, forms of cohesion, the bridges (that is those persons who make the only link between two strongly connected groups), ,,the balance”, that is the polarisation trend of highly cohesive groups, represent the network’s complexity. The egocentric nets originate in just one single individual referring to the group he belongs to (group egoism).
In this context, the political people belonging to reactionary society, morally alienated and economically corrupted, create negative dependencies throughout the entire society, fomenting the institutional stall, the managerial crisis, the administrative incapacity, hampering the real reformation process. The administrative drive is one of the biggest enemies of corruption. It acts as the indispensable transmission belt between the central power and the mass of population, making the laws applicable. Let’s imagine a fire bursting some place, so declaring this fire alert. An employee dashes quickly with a kettle of water to put out the fire: just two bare arms are at work. But if he grabs a flail urging with it his subjects, thousands of people shall do the same job. Another example: when we want to shake a tree, we do not shake every single leaf, bu the trunk instead. The trunk is to tree what the employees are to the society.
The excessive politisation has atomised the society, putting it in tow of the various casts of divergent interests, which actually communicate by the very society’s informational supervision, by the social network of the political power in correspondence with the degree of corruption and subterranean compatibility of the opportunistic interests at work.
The group egoism and the craving for power features, characterizes the collective life turning increasingly prone to conflict, poisoned by the social network of the political power. Due to the political influence, the upright men who wish o freely grow and develop according to their intellectual background and their own psychological and moral life urges, depend where their actions are concerned by the reactionary, entropic society of planned disorganisation, the political network included.
The masses are driving the power, influencing the institutions’ efficiency, the government measures and the bills’ quality. So by upgrading the general level of culture and the emancipation of the social and political relationships, it must be developed the effective, social control forms on the power and political decision factors; conservative factors which popped up in the society as coercive tools meant to safeguard order and exercise of a bogus control, or else to maintain a controlled chaos, being incapable for representative and participative democracy, incapable of a real reform and to thoroughly ,,pest repel” the economic structures, bolstering the financial discipline, the administrative driving force, decentralising the financial resources relocating them from the central position , to the local position, but mostly making the moral reform of justice, police, education a.s.o. This is why these stand up to prominence as being just inertial factors and retrograde forces, generators of alienating phenomena.
Many dependencies are made between individual and the group at the time he beholds a value system, personal cultural–moral beliefs, and joins the reference group at level of principle only, bereft of full fledged, full hearted membership, and suppose this group is at some point deviating from its aim under corruptive immoral, nondemocratic, reactionary influences. In this case conformism is the name of the vice which brand iron the character fo the social network of the political power, which further generates the multi-factorial system of interdependencies. If an individual does not agree with the social-political system, he either practically indicts himself to reclusion, or his own freedom is jeopardized, his prestige, his wealth and his progress, as he is labelled either anarchist, ,,perpetrator”, or anti system reformer.
People are governable because they nurture passions, they have retrograde mentalities, because they originate in a rather lower social lineage and because they do have their price, in the absence of self conscientiousness. A society without passions, or vices, comprising sages only would be ungovernable, because, having no inner drives nor fear, ,,the subjects” would present no protrusion for hooking up to.
All the time old traditions indicate that always the law infringements, the rebellious conducts fomenting the great revolutions were enacted by the big figures, not the humble stock in the multitudes. Mostly, law only is enforced to reprimand the lower class population, quenching any hope of talk back in the people, which won’t even bother to denounce any longer, so that the high standing cadres keep building up coalitions in a reciprocating cover up each other’s back. They understand each other perfectly when and how to cheat their master. They are in perfectly tuned agreement while putting out a fake show of despising each other just enough to drive the hint home about the fact that they do harbour no hidden obscure intention.
Reciprocally they lend each other eyes and ears, ready in ambush to hunt some flaw of the leader and exploit it to their own profit, a leader who, kept aside and in ignorance, would be unable to realize what’s going on actually (refer to „The Divine Operators” by Jean Levi).
Folks, do assume the responsibility of a unique and unitary justice of the moral, politics and social life reform. Do not indulge in conniving complicities, scheming out opportunistic compromises tailored to make you the beneficiaries of the corrupted system, swapping the moral value with the material one, allowing the operation of obsolete, corrupted institutions, which sap your vigour and maintain you in a state of dependency just to justify its own existence. If it would not be you to give them the purpose of their activity, they wouldn’t even exist any more. In general, people use to say „it’s from the head the fish starts to decay”, but it is also true that a bit of yeast is enough for the entire bulk of dough.
The one and only solution, since even the politicians have grown dependent on the very system they babybrained should be to cut out the maintenance of the political power’s social network, to drop forever those beliefs and mentalities collectively beheld either conscientiously or sub-conscientiously, which outline the profile of the world’s institutions and which lay at the root of the institutionalized oppression and injustice.
By choosing to obey an entity enforcing aggression of any kind and restrictions either by control, manipulation and lies mounted against others, you agree to assume the responsibility on your own shoulders and on everybody else alike as well.
The great German creator Richard Wagner (1813-1883) was writing in his „The Opera and the Drama” (1851): „Politics is the mystery of our times …Napoleon has put it this way. He said to Goethe: Since the Romans rule, the fatum of the Ancient World was replaced by politics. In a purely political world, not being a politician means not to exist at all as a human being.”
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By Sebastian Sârbu.
True enough history may be defined as being the ,,magister vitae”, as the sage old men from ancient times coined this paradigmatic vision.
Far from operate with hollow assertions, we should subject to the critical thinking, scientific examination the arguments by which we try to prove that history is truly an objective science, therefore a ,,magister vitae”.
Let’s pretend we don’t try to apotheotically endorse, the way we may still find in the speciality literature, the fact that history is the perpetual checkmate of the other sciences, we shall engage an approach meant to support the interest of science, beyond the sectarian positions, quite marginal actually which shrink the history down to a brand new species of relativism, a cultural one, applied to the global shifts, but nihilist at its core.
From gnoseological angle history gets in its crosshairs the cognitive modelling of the reality starting from down to earth ontological context and re-configuring the empirical data in agreement with the positive laws, the only ones which may provide the instruments of the objectivity and for probing the concrete.
While from a social angle, however, history as a science is focused on anthropological knowledge, researching the collective mentality, compressing time and pursuing in all this time the causal ratio which connects the events one to each other.
From ethical angle history is also bent to reset and re-settle if the human truth, by way of suspending the sequential order of the natural – causal and temporary, and granting of a utterly novel and universal dimension of heroic type, or mythical or else on the contrary the safeguarding of the human truth often prerequisite antagonisms, which by personification and actual stripping the action off its objective elements, are portrayed the actors here involved both antithetically and profoundly characteriologically. In this case subjectivity heightens whereas the probability lessens, and thus the venture is limited, the way time was compressed.
The various cultural constructs, the philosophical trends, social doctrines, interdisciplinary theories, schools of thinking, political ideologies have sought to found a paradigm, an ex cathedra working frame, and sometime extra cathedra of history which has been and still is regarded as an integrated science, if not altogether sub-tired to other sciences or progressist ideologies which , like in some chemistry laboratory is testing models and practices in the scientific approach putting on airs of mathematics and Kantian starched formalism.
In this case it is classical the example of the methodical – scientific failure to represent the dynamic – evolutionary representation of the historical reality like some linear course of running the events, whereof, here, the political accolade paid as a tribute to the ,,progress of civilisation”.
From this stand point, we rather back the theory of social – historical discontinuities, starting from a widely acknowledged fact that the world in itself is a dynamic system rather obeying the laws of dynamics and nor the statistical – mathematical laws neither the deterministic ones.
To determine, means nothing else but measuring and assert as being true whatever is here to be proved. The basis for induction for history represents a reverse process or asymmetric of cognition, the one that starts from effect back to cause, from experience to knowledge.
This represents of course the positivist method of analysis and research which is valid up to the point where rebuking its own objective venture, it falls into the formal logic sin of reductionist species, that it does not transcend.
At the same time, unlike the scientific knowledge, the empirical knowledge, is contradictory, subjective, relative and limited to just a particular slice of existence, down to a tightly contained case.
The scientific knowledge, however, on the contrary is universal, united, objective. Yet the outcome of both should be addressed based on criteria, methods and practices which pertain to the cognitive subject’s capacity, who is himself part of the reality it quantifies. So, if we quit applying of linear methods or lab-type ones when researching scientifically of the phenomena and the historical processes, we’ll find out that the historian’s mission is not to build up hypothesis, laws or new theories, having the aim of mathematically prove them accurate, or else of influencing the historical thinking hampered by the objectivity complex sprung off the wish to address history systematically.
The proto-chronism sin cannot lead to invoking an original sin turned hereditary by the way in which the nostalgia of paradise allegedly pre-existent into the human DNA, leads, from the intellectual angle, to either perpetuation or not of the primeval, more carnal faults, and these should manifest in continuation to those who would promote the cosmopolitanism. It is as if the de-constructivist theory would be mistaken for an actual de-construction of the concrete world, a token telltale of lack of accurate focus, or a theory of conspiratorial plots, which always surface from the hollow abysses flawing some theories popping up in the way of the cultural trend of establishing a general guideline in the knowledge of history, therefore of contextualisation only of what we use to call history in itself, or a historical phenomenon in itself.
We further retain the aspect that in our clarifying and cathartic efforts from the stand point of simplifying the common watcher’s comprehension on the history lived and narrated, shall only have relevance the history in itself, before approaching the actually lived history, the historical phenomenon in its space – temporality.
And this may be understood by only the fact that what we use to call ‘claimed knowledge’ originated in the common sense, as a Berkeleyan species, must be supported in the scientific circles by those evidences, which do not pertain to the rational discursiveness or some formal logic exercise.
There are nations where oral tradition plays a major role in what is called education to form and fundamental of knowledge, implicitly that grammar of persuasion, starting from symbolics and imagology.
However these instruments are very easy to use for manipulation and dismantling of the collective mental.
For the idealist Germany, whose prominent leading mind was in his time Hegel the philosopher, the idea, the deep set feel as sensitive certitude, the immaterial ideal stood at the foundation of history, of the very onset and the building up of the world. Even the State itself was looked at rather dogmatically, idyllically by Hegel who has set its worth as being a divine institution, and as a consequence the topmost product at a historical scale of the Universal Reason. Just thinking about, how this concept basically is not different from the ancient world’s philosophy, from stoicism. And again, history, as history looked at through the eyepiece of the cultural anthropology, shows us how these nations which benefited from a protected historic millieu, under economic, military and political pressure developed that philosophy, axiology, moral and educational paradigm in agreement with its own life psychology, but also jointly with the material and social existence conditions.
K.Marx supported the opposite namely that the idea, the culture, the conscience are determined by the economic, the social-historical millieu, the material basics.
From this point of view Marx had the right hunch, but he looked on the fatality of the material conditions on human society, failing to be realist and failing to see that the economic in itself is not wrapped in a compact packet, a fated gift, but each society in various successive historical periods developed its own custom-made economic model depending on the political ideology and the values system by which he conceived the constitutional order and the social organisation type.
Therefore history should have to be regarded through the prism of the two co-ordinates: education and science, conditioned by the social – historical practice itself; and due to the fact that culture is always a product of the spiritual heredity of a nation of ideas’ biography and the genesis of institutions, bespeaking about the national character echoed in all aspects of the public life.
History, therefore, is not just an autonomous science but an institution subjected to changes itself seeks to spot and quantify, to rationalize using specific means.
Karl Popper developed his own theory of science, where he proved that, this being a valid cognitive principle where the objective reality is concerned, a hypothesis could also be put to the test of negation and not just exclusively to the confirmation bench test.
In this regard he provided as an example the Marxism, which as a historical reality was the result of an exclusive confirmation, whereas the positivist laws of science and also mainstays of the universal evolution flagged this as an anti-natural conscience flaw, its implementation without taking into account the claim stated by us namely that the historian’s venture is not to just build up hypothesis, experimental models, or law arrays to serve the purpose of some political ideology, but to take into account the stark reality whose main agent is the human being, acting as a proactive subject builder of the reality.
Dismantling the conspiracy of history, Popper, unwillingly expressed himself like a true historian, who beside and beyond turning the history reality into a relative issue, he made a relative issue out of the very cognitive mode and doing so he most sincerely he expressed his ice-cold, objective, demystifying approach in what concerns not only history but also those who tinkers and tampers with it in order to just accept the harness of some ideology and make it beyond its natural laws.
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
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By Sebastian Sârbu.
Bashar Al-Assad is one of those inflatable dictators, ,,pumped up” by Moscow, Phenian and Tehran orbiting along the famous infamous axis of the Evil, so defined by the USA, as far back as the times of Ronald Reagan Administration.
The Soviet Union’s ambition was to create a new power centre, actually for polarizing the Asiatic and Arabic worlds, so that by creation of the ,,Asiatic – Arabic Corridor” to build and emergent alliance of anti-occident type (USSR-India-Pakistan-North Korea -Iran-Afghanistan).
The basic is that Assad enjoys a rather counterfeited reputation and that he lost any credibility for the civilized world. The human rights culture and the higher standards of the western democracy call for an intervention.
The political solution turned up as non viable anymore from the moment we acknowledge the failure of the UNO reunions focused on finding a way out from the Syrian conflict and also on the failure of the Peace Conference in Geneva, against the dynamical backdrop scoring about 200,000 casualties toll, civilians mostly, since 2011 until today.
Lots have been said about the intensively invoked western military intervention chaperoned by the USA in Syria. Despite of those statements, naively decrypted, claiming that this military operation was not meant to remove Assad from power, this intervention could be even larger, and way more complex than a limited ,,Desert Fox” operation type, or a lightning warfare strike specific to the Israeli defense.
Sending in the air raids in April 1999 in Yugoslavia is just a coincidence which stirred confusion among the analysts of this phenomenon, since by this example no one wished to highlight a so-called limited intervention, with identical character, but rather the fact that the United States could move unilaterally, without a mandate from the UN.
A 2 to 3 military op in Syria, as vented by some news agencies would be deemed as a military expedition, that is a free-wheel single-sided foray of the US, possibly with a minimal support from France and the Great Britain. The postponement of the military intervention in Syria, far from playing on purpose to disappoint, provides the military action against the Assad regime with consistency and effectiveness and does not exceeds the Pentagon’s planning agenda which also are in the course of consulting with the Allies.
Firstly the necessary relenting of the military intervention development, actually provides the NATO member states, in fact to the USA’s traditional allies the opportunity to endorse the legitimacy of such an action, in agreement with the applicable norms in the international rights.
Not at last however, taking into consideration the Russia’s bellicose opposition which deployed a cruiser and an anti-submarine warships in the Mediterranean Sea, the USA wish an aggregation of a large coalitions of states.
The President Obama’s statement, declaring that no one wishes a new Iraq-like situation to happen, is indicative for the fact that the military intervention in Syria shall rather be one portent and complex and not just a military adventure empty of a legitimate justification and support of the international community on a largest scale possible. Also, this new type approach, is taking into account the risks and costs of an intervention, but also the practical modus operandi, by a ground-based action or of surgical type, aerial strategic a.s.o. In no way this statement should not be perceived with scepticism, as a pulling off from engagement which would favour a unilateral intervention, of lightning strike type, especially due to the fresh complications looming ahead related to the dangerous regional interests and powers such as Iran acting as a regional leader, putting up nuclear infatuation, promoter of some sort of political fundamentalism.
One portion of the international civil society uttered the opinion that the sheer lack of international community-backed action, indirectly legitimate the criminal acts of the Assad regime. In fact, an essential role was played by the instrumentation of the psychological mechanism and the public communications exercising meant to prepare the public opinion, which manifested the recrudescence in the indictment of the Assad regime and mostly of its last period.
Also this military intervention was approached from an economic angle, in the sense that the world economy would be hampered by this regional warfare.
Beyond the war philosophy, which in some cultural systems was regarded like having a civilisation bringer or creator role, we cannot however pretend not to see the modern studies and statistic indicative that the USA were always on the winning side from the economic-financial angle from any war waged elsewhere anywhere in the world. Beside this aspect there is also a quite intellectually and politically notorious fact the existence of the military industrial aggregated complex (the military capitalism), put together by way of the marriage of the three powers: economic, military, political, and the direct outcome of interest for our case study is the fact that the Pentagon takes no political-military decision on warfare businesses, without taking in account by actual computing its economic and strategic advantages. In the same context was circulated in the press the news release according to which the stock exchange shares of the weapons manufacturing industrial corporations skyrocketed by 20%, let alone the fact that the entire defense and security industry is in full swing and booming so to speak.
One should mention that the Bush doctrine of ,,the collective internationalism”, as it was recorded in the military and geopolitical studies, confirms that the USA may intervene not just off only preconceived reasons based on economically dominant pole position, or else out of a purely geostrategic far-fetching scheme but also from reasons concerning its own independence, save-guarding democracy, human rights and the fundamental liberties. This fact falls along the same strategic line under the Obama Administrations also.
The USA are a standalone power which, according to its defense doctrine, may intervene anywhere are threatened the democratic values, the order of the right and the human fundamental rights. Again, we emphasize, only a country with solid power structures may afford an intervention of any nature whatever on the international scene to knightly champion in the service of an ,,catholic ideal”. That is why those who are complaining the costs of a military intervention do not comprehend the intricate workings of a power’s mechanism, neither its values nor its principles.
Let’s not forget that the written records of the mankind history assert that the weapon was the first and the tool was next, yet the modern mankind sacredly pledged and acknowledged in the Universal Human Rights Declaration, the immutable principle of the force of the Right taking precedence over the right to the Force. So this moral and legal elementary school textbook of the modern man is the legitimate instrument of the Occident by which the Western values of an universal type are opposed to the Machiavellism of some obsolete political forces, acting in spaces where ideology is fed like opium to a pauper and feudalized population.
In conclusion, irrespective of the angle we may chose to watch on the Syrian Crisis, it calls for an answer, and this one should be synergic and strong bolstered with the moral worth of Justice in the civilized world at the level of the XXIst century.
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By Sebastian Sârbu.
The technologies have been, there are and forever shall be at the hottest very core of the armed confrontation. To some extent they are precisely those which revolutionize the military art itself. The relationship, however is neither univocal nor biunivocal but one with lots of tangled ins and outs. The war theory, the time honored experience in military campaigns, the actual requirements of the fighting space and among all these, the level of the technical offer are coagulated factors which jointly shape up a certain evolution of the military strategy.
The technology boom issue and its impact on the military field, given the current requirements, make up a highly attractive research field, of interdisciplinary nature, dwelling at the very junction point of technical, economical and military sciences.
Beside the economical, scientific and technical potential, the military potential makes today and shall be tomorrow an essential means for reaching the basic political and strategical aims of each state. It is therefore justified the world states’ preoccupation at the onset of the third millennium for the present and the future of their own weapon making industries, for boosting th efficiency factors of the military technologies, for further developing of the basic components of the modern war and the updated of battle engagement systems at tactical, operational and strategical levels.
At the question whether we are facing now a genuine revolution in military matters, that is for the military in a broader sense, the answer could not be but affirmative. Such a revolution has known many cycles and many stages based on the great scientific discoveries and their military implementation, on the brand new highly performance weaponry which in its turn incurred serious mutations in the both concept and the waging of actions of war.
This is why the latest breaking discoveries in weaponry – data acquisition from satellites, infrared beam driving, laser and microwave remote guidance and the Global Positioning System (GPS), the creation and usage of high precision weapons, of the integrated weapon array systems a.s.o. – gave birth to another just out-of-the-box face of belligerence.
The contents of the contemporary military technology revolution may be deduced from the mere relevation of the features which make it specific and from the directions where it evolves. So we may highlight the following major features with direct impact on weaponry:
-all encompassing character (wide scope), since it exerts a major bearing on all weapon categories and warfare means (conventional, nuclear, cosmic, mass destruction, intelligent ammo etc.);
-fast paced development, since within rather short intervals of time, inside the same warfare means family pop up brand new weapon generations with enhanced features (armored cars, jet fighters, helicopters, missiles, air defense guns, high precision search and destroy systems, remote man & alert systems etc.)
-up scaling to cosmic dimension by production of space based weaponry (satellite mounted weapons and anti-satellite, space shuttles) with the purpose of exploiting this space, mainly from the military vantage point.
At the same time one may identify also the actions vectors within the contemporary military technology revolutions:
-the considerable expansion of the destructive effects of the weapons and warfare means by the effective usage of all the sources available: nuclear, thermonuclear, light and chemical;
-upscale the performances of the long range ballistic missiles, as the major means of carrying the destructive payload to the intent target, of the warfare radioactive and chemical substances;
-intensive and extensive implementation of the latest breaking discoveries in electronics, micro, nano electronics and lasers to the purpose of enhance technical – tactical indicators of the warfare means;
-upgrading of the technical – tactical indicators of the “intelligent weapons” (quite remarkable results were scored with: all kinds of missiles, jet fighter borne missiles, torpedos, anti tank mines, artillery shells, remote controlled jet fighters, drones etc. ) in order to be able to carry out warfare op missions of increasing complexity;
-intensification of preoccupations to build radiation-based warfare means and microwaves-based weapons with worsened destructive effects on personnel and warfare machines;
-intensification of research in the artificial intelligence field for larger scale sharing of expert-system usage (informatics experts-the most important artificial intelligence products) and robotics implementation in the military field;
-using the bio-technologies as warfare means which allegedly could eventually scale up to a genuine “genetic warfare”.
The revolution in weaponry is a certain. In just a couple of years only, a giant leap was made regarding the shape and effect of the hits, from massive to precision, from uncertainty to certitude, due to the latest breaking, highly performance technologies in the fields such as intelligence, research, pattern-recognition and hit.
The mutations occurred within the society call for a true revolution in approaching military concepts, a revolution capable to sync up and gear to the new economical and technological functions. Science and communication shall be the main engines of the XXIth century. Intelligent tools make intelligent weapons. No prove out best the actual modus operandi the Desert Storm warfare operation was run in the Persian Gulf which may be termed as a “warfare of mind (spirit) against matter”.
Actually in the confrontation in the Persian Gulf – as Newt Gingrich put it – “the world witnessed for the first time a warfare between military systems from the Third Wave and a Second Wave machine”. The “Desert Storm” operation mainly consisted in Iraqis annihilation by Americans and their allies, mostly due to to the fact that the Third Wave systems merely proved overwhelming. While the highly sophisticated anti aircraft artillery, belonging to the Second Wave, were no match in the confrontation with the stealth jet fighters from the Third Wave.
The armies in the Second Wave’s trenches were merely run over and steamrolled by the aiming and logistic systems sprung off the Third Wave” The entire deployment of the warfare was utterly upturned.
The war, the way of conducting the fight in such a conflict – in terms of economy, geopolitics and ethics – shall have multiple and profound side effects for both armies and their countries worldwide. The way of deploying shall utterly change the very nature of belligerence itself. The military doctrine is about to change, and to change quite radically. Today, “if we listen carefully – as A. Toffler said – no matter whether the terms are being formulated in Chinese or Italian, in French or Russian, the mainstay topics (of the military doctrines that is) remain those of the Air vs. Terrestrial Fight and the Air – Terrestrial Operations”.
In the military ops shall be employed high precision weaponry, able to “surgically destroy” specialized, carefully picked targets with minimal, “collateral damages”. The laser guiding bombs, the long range missiles, the stealth jet fighters “invisible” (anti-radar) etc. are all weapons which, by their capacity to penetrate high threat zones, shall echo the military men’s thought in the contents of the concepts on “deep inside battle”, “forbidden” and the importance of information and the smart weapons. The classical frontline vanished. The battle and the operation shall further deepen everywhere seeping in all dimensions: distance, altitude, time.
The military conflict in future is focused on values, whose content is based on qualitative features, rather than those still quantity based, namely: de-mass; selectivity, “ fine and accurate ”, of the aims and targets; “smart soldiers”; the creativity and the initiative, to be developed at a high degree by both militaries and civilians; compact combat units, weapon systems with more fire power and higher precision; more autonomy for commanding officers at all echelons; system integration; vast electronic infrastructure multi-branch and complex; maneuvering speed etc.
The usage of these values shall turn armies, not into just a machine but in an “wider scale internal feed-back system, communication and self-adjustment tuning”, which is actually “a thinking system of its own”. Also, as we mentioned above, the way of waging the battle, the warfare in itself, shall suffer major significant mutations – whereof a possible other alternate typology thereof.
The type of warfare for which prepare the countries, their armies, the command headquarters, the military everywhere, the cadets and rookies in the military education institutions is not the present war, but the war in the future, more exactly, in the next decade, that is the war of 2010- 2020.
The future warfare is not easy to identify and defined. Because, as it is just a political instrument, the war shall always configure along its own flexible co-ordinates, blending together features of the political and social philosophy with the armed combat laws and principles or from alternative types of confrontation.
It is widely considered that war is deemed as a means of un-block. A strategic situations, but the continuity elements and the discontinuity elements inside the space of confrontation, the appearance and development of the asymmetric components, terrorist, identity and globalization or anti-globalization widens the sphere and its contents, turning it into a dynamic reality, and make it almost indispensable to the planet, the main belligerent actors looming more and more so the Good and the Bad, the Good side of the bad and the Bad side of the good, in an infinite spectrum of conditioned possibilities and probabilities, and not so just in the classical dichotomy framework Yes – No. Throughout the analysis of war or wars in the making for which we are currently preparing – as shape of shapes of a permanent or perpetual warfare situation – one should keep an eye open on the following typology:
a) The classical warfare, to become in the next 10 – 20 years, High Tech Warfare, assuming its already known form, and Net Based War. It is unlikely that the classical war would altogether vanish from the panoply of any armed preparation. Most of the highly developed countries in the NATO (but also those from outside the Alliance) see this war in a rather dynamic, complex mode.
b) The perpetual warfare, as an expression of classical warfare and asymmetric united, with the following flavors:
– the geophysical warfare; information war; psychological warfare;
– the media war; the economic warfare; the cosmic war;
– the „cultural” war; the genetic warfare.
The geophysical warfare consists in a system of actions focused on triggering “natural” phenomena, calamities and catastrophes with adverse effects on the human life, localities, agricultural lands and estates, communication systems, with the purpose of reaching some important goals, counting also the total destruction of the enemy’s potential and resources.
The information war is based on controlling the information vectors.
The psychological warfare, is aimed mainly on discouraging the enemy, on creation of some panic-inducing situations, uncertainty, false perception of the reality.
The media war, currently is the major means of conducting the perpetual warfare and especially the psychological warfare.
Media is displayed as information carried, as a dialogue space, as a tool and means for expressing the truth. The mass media however is more than just that. They are or may be instruments and means of info-manipulation, a terrific weapon the mighty ones may always use, one way or another.
Basically the economic warfare is mere fight for economic survival, for prosperity and dominance.
The cosmic warfare, is an extension of the confrontation theaters and of the means of confrontation across information, media, economic and military ranges.
The „cultural” warfare, does not refer to the clash of values as the misnomer sometime suggests but rather to a clash of interests hooked to the cultural production support.
In a way the genetic warfare, is an asymmetric flavor of the perpetual warfare. Such a war has no strategy nor doctrine to back it. Some aspects related to this are still manifest today, taking the form of biological warfare or the one involving mass destruction weaponry, human DNA cracking, etc. Under expert focus are, under the form sub of some instruments meant to genetically enhance the species, a plethora of methodologies, practices and products obtained by genetic engineering, by cloning.
c) Military actions taken against organized crime entities, drug smuggling and other asymmetric threats.
d) Post conflict military operations.
The warfare type to be assumed and modeled in the military education and the army instruction should be the Net Based War (NBW), which is copying from the society the efficient action mode, as a mere cost effective business like any other business. In other words, what society has learned from the army is fed back today according to some intricate ddeterministicinner working, to the military field.
The nuclear technology, the top tech, the nanotechnology, the information technology all these are to be found today, in-built into high precision weapons, while the projects in store for the years to come are even more ponderous.
In future the warfare would be mainly strategic. This trend of changing the war’s physiognomy began its dynamic grow within the last decade.
Alike the non conventional technologies, the non-conventional warfares should not however replace the classical, conventional, war as we know it. The time honored strategic type both concept and target, is the ,,total war”. Certainly the non-conventional warfare may annihilate the enemy without the classical military means especially in the globalization context. The debate remains open.
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
Abstract: In this paper a conceptual analysis is developed, encompassing a rather large scientific range, of the identity clashes and its components and not in the least it is introduced the multiculturalism and its role as a peace-making factor and a solution provider.
The conflicts between identities are hierarchically classified by the time honoured scientific instruments and criteria, commencing from the most serious and legitimate sources in this field.
The scientific approach is built in a systematic multi-disciplinary attempt, meant to identify both the favouring inner causes of the identity clash, and the real context of their ways of making manifest. The particular and axiological elements are supplemented with historical, geopolitical and sociologic landmarks, in their dynamical nature. The independence of the identity clash actuality is therefore tackled from the angle of globalization and democracy-based changing processes in the life of the society, of a new economic geography of the states and the states’ need of security against the grand backdrop of vanishing of the economic walls between nations.
Furthermore, in this paper are introduced the solutions required for stopping the identity clashes and inhibiting their spiralling up dynamics.
The axiological mutations and the ideological extremism are here taken in consideration related to the geopolitical transformations and polarizations of a socioeconomic nature. Also are examined with critical eye the religious extremism phenomena, separatism, nationalism, anarchy and social anomy, regional insecurity.
The multiculturalism, observance of human rights, the development of the democratic institutions, negotiation, social justice, social cohesion, the intercultural / inter-religious dialogue, but also the implementation of the controlled-society inner mechanics, are just a few of the solutions introduced in this paper.
Keywords: identity clash, power relations, intercultural dialogue, inter-ethnic conflict, inter-religious conflict, fundamentalism, extremism, secessionism, globalism, axiology, multiculturalism, disparities, geo-economic zones, regionalism, the new economic geography, the Ricardian vision, NATO, EU, social anarchy, authority, social security, lasting development, polarization, democracy, social control, anomic state.
The globalization process as a transitory phase for mankind, is bearing the marks of sequentially transformations and reforms which generated a series of tensions and some new types of emerging conflicts.
In the past the Napoleonic paradigm prevailed in the worldwide geopolitical scale, as a theoretical tool at least, claiming that ,, space rules the politics”.
Even if this paradigm still works today, it was rather restructured somehow, so that ,,the space” should be claimed and divided from the viewpoint of a new political and economical geography, crafted on the basis of some axiological models (identities) which basically are the ground of a brand new generation of identity conflicts.
The conflicts are theoretical instruments employed by science to quantify some status, commencing from a principle of rights. Taking into account the space of crisis management and conflicts prevention, we shall further use a definition proposed by FEWER/FAST, which claims that there is no crisis without a conflict-prone environment, and that any crisis requires a trigger to blow up. If crises are the acute portions of the conflicts – that is moments when are highly jeopardized fundamental values, calling for instant response and under pressure of the decision making entity – the conflicts remain those situations where two actors at least wish, at the same time, the same thing, which they brawl for subsequently and for whose possession they are more than eager to spend resources and assume risks at any and all levels.
The causes leading to triggering of conflicts according to the Stanislawski model are based (theoretically) on character items of the value and hierarchy attributes of some actor (or group), i.e.: Power, Resource, Prestige. The advantage of this model consists in the inter-changeability characteristic of the three itemized elements mentioned above. Within the space of conflicts and the contesting elements between the two actors, the power shall be replaced by authority, as a coming-back to the charismatic power, and the prestige, as status, in correlation with authority and elements of identity.
From the perspective individual features – relational effects ratio, we have therefore, a sub-tier classification of the conflict grounds:
– conflicts of assignment / property, those focused on resources, where the dispute is purely relational and is consumed on just one element incurring its exclusive ownership, that is the disjunctive sharing model: simply, that thing is divided, after conflict, in the part of one side and the part of the other side, with nothing much else substantially left at the intersection of the two properties (albeit there still remains non shared portions in the process aftermath).
– conflicts of authority / power, when the two actors are wrestling to gain more authority on some space / community. This time, however, both sides are trying to maximize their own authority and to minimize the opponent’s authority, without having to do here with a constant sum, a quantified amount of authority, so that a raising of the authority of one side does not lead implicitly to a lower degree of authority of the other side.
– conflicts of status – in this case, the conflict resides in the acknowledgement by the other one of some status, of some position in a hierarchy, of some importance associated to some status. In this case, the essential characteristic, the feature in the dispute is related mostly to the actor’s own efforts, but it calls a erga omnes validation as such and – necessarily to become an actual conflict – the validation of the second actor.
Into a third category falls the origin of the deepest conflicts, due especially to the symbolic payload from the class of values, from the groups’ attributes and interests. In this case, we deal with a taxonomy of features depending on the symbolic value under debate, on a scale starting from the most basic, primary existence up to elements exclusively related to hierarchy or power relations. On this scale, the fiercest conflicts are found in the lower section of the scale, there where the very group’s existence, its identity, are involved, the very legitimacy of its existence or its targets’ inner reasons, of the claims and the prestige, the charismatic power an hierarchy type attribute, set erga omnes and which generates – besides interests – the capability of summoning from a political viewpoint, the outer support to reinforce the position engaged in conflict.
Therefore, this way the identity clashes are conflicts the very identity of some actor is being debated into discussion. There are two fundamental types: extern, where the two actors are hassling over identity recognition but also of the legitimacy of one of them or they make potential or actual moves for changing the counterpart’s own identity, of the tradition as symbolic and institutional value of national / communitary type sub-mining the social order deemed as base plate of the entire hierarchy waging the axiological war – identity-focused and ideological war as well, and internally, when the components of the community in discussion claims parallel identities, very often prefabricated. When these contesting identities gain a basic political pitch, the identity clashes get polarized, the ,,cultural” – symbolic factor putting itself under the political force command as an organisational and glue-together factor for these groups, communities respectively. The identity clashes typology is comprised of: inter-ethnic, inter-religious, inter-cultural conflicts.
The geographical boundaries no longer may be set in this new age only observing geostrategic criteria (i.e. the ex-Soviet space, the German space), economics (the high – tech boom space, the energy resources space / raw material space), interests – strategic interest space – and the security and defense hot situations (South-East Europe space, the Baltic Countries , the states from ,,VÎSEGRAD”, the ,, VILNIUS-10” states). Starting with the major events by the end of the XXth century the political-administrative geography of Europe has changed with major implications both present and future.
As seen from the strategic angle the space is no longer representing today just a mere geographic acreage. Space had and still has a symbolic and political payload spiced with identity– axiological extra features, involving the status, the authority and the legitimacy of the political systems which are driving the states. The national interests were defined, in the globalization frame, as being mere regional interests.
In this context, the identity clashes occurred indirectly and as a follow-up of the new wave in democracy and Euroatlantic push, as a form of kickback from the power centres that wished to maintain the status – quo. On the other hand the states’ national role lost face in favour of the supra-statal groups (corporations), and of the sub-statal group (minorities). Whereas the supra-statal groups represent the economy-prevails-politics aspect, recte the liberal oligarchy, the sub-statal groups involve a trend to regionalization, communitarism, self-organizing, both aspects configured as factual evidence by-products of the globalization process.
The globalization of culture, of information generates most serious identity shifts, concomitantly with large drifts of social, economic or just purely identity emancipation, bolstered with a strong liberal streak. All these transformations were beneficial, but involved an asymmetric evolving dimension and a blossoming of secessionist trends, of non-legitimate entities of terroristic type or those having a subversive nature, which manifested in the life of the society as retrograde forces, extremist, anti-democratic or fuelled by ură ethnic-religious hatred and regional / sub-regional separatism. They flourished using to their profit the constitutional liberties leverage, but also speculating the institutional gaps in order to wage terror and anarchy.
An important role in maintaining the peace and social cohesion is played by multiculturalism. This is the expression of aculturalism, and also of the intercultural and inter-religious dialogue, of respecting the right of anyone to confess and practice any religion whatsoever by promoting a non-discriminatory politics. The religious beliefs may take political shapes both defensive and offensive, and when they develop amidst an anarchic social background, based on the ethnic component, communitary, hierarchic organization, authoritarian manifest as an extremist highly aggressive force.
The military and economic potential of the fundamentalist religious entities – generators of identity clashes, even full scale identity wars, originates in the moneylaundry and illegal cash transfers, organized crime, vacuumed power, institutional and security crisis, political corruption, insecurity and social / regional anarchy, the dissolution of the state authority, the volatility of the political milieu.
The components of the identity clash are: the ethnic-religious component, the socio-cultural component, the ideological -political component and the geopolitical component.
As an example the South Eastern Europe was set and re-known as traditionally space of religious and ethnic – cultural interferences. This is where blend in the religious and ethnic – cultural wide pools, Central and Eastern Europe specific, but also the pools from Near East and the Middle East.
Taking into account the vigorous religious and ethnic – cultural identity, but also due to the major drives of these socio-cultural factors, required to define the interstate relationships, an emerging European policy loomed ahead to stabilize the area’s zones and to implement of the democratic culture and norms as basic bricks of the modern society, based on the progress as concept and peaceful cohabitation in a safe and tranquil environment.
So the laicization of the statal institutions, the functionality of the state of based-on-rights state, the market economy, the respect for civil rights and liberties, legal coverage of the fundamental human rights, the protection of minorities, crisis management, support the free thinking and conscience, the development of the democratic institutions, represented the geopolitical side of the reforms and transformations based on states’ partnership to the Council of Europe, OSCE and PfP, which was marred by the resurrection of the ethnic-religious fundamentalisms, of the ethnic-cultural tensions and local conflicts.
Among the causes of the identity clashes of ethnic – religious type one may enlist: unbalanced ratios between ethnic-religious majority and minority by imposing of a minority ruling local administration; territorial skirmishes; hampering of local and regional development; artificial building of some statal or administrative-territorial and autonomous entities based on minority’s self-establishment based on ethnic-religious criteria, statal and interstatal separatist trends with territorial delimitations observing pseudo-religious criteria and purely ideological or political, hacking off the religious assets by way of inter/intra-patriarchal quarrels, arguments boiling within the laic state and inside the fundamentalist entities / structures.
The crash of Communism in the industrial societies in Europe and Central Asia favoured the religious moves revival. The Pan Arabian Move is currently reactivated and is generating the phenomenon generically known as ,,The Islamic Boom”. A boom whose expansionist targets focused on the Central and Eastern Europe, are as follows: controlling the main routes, commercial roads and centres between Europe and Asia, the planetary Ocean, Africa; the domination of an European space of strategic relevance; building up of a Muslim axis in South Eastern Europe, linked to the centre of Asia, the Middle East, the Near East and North Africa; deploying some military conflicts of a nature to engage the clash of the civilizations.
While in the ex-Yugoslavia, as anywhere within the Balkan space the nationalism acted as an obstacle for the NATO and EU rampant, the mentality of the federal identity went to its apex in the ex-Soviet space with identity conflicts of ethnic nature and former rivalries over some territories and sub-regions inhabited by various ethnics of the states just turned loose of the ex-USSR which severely resented the identity clash which behaved like a true major, ethnic component, still paying tribute to the old Soviet ways to purify and desnationalise.
The Nationalism, as cultural and axiological system, one of the sources of the identity clashes, is replaced with the religious beliefs system, energized by proselytism and expansion, as a reaction to the man’s identity crisis. This thing is visible in Mohammedan states, but it’s notorious the fact that the development of some religious fundamentalist – extremist groups is based on sectarian principles and political motivations and aims, respectively.
In this space of the identity clashes, we witness today a recrudescence of the battle between the ex-Soviet elite and the national elite of the newly emerged states.
The themes and topics on identity clashes are complex as they are influenced by other factors no less important. So the geostrategic findings on identity reflects the dynamic evolution from one system of values to another one which should not be regarded separately or in parallel against the prominent political structures and forces, but rather in an inter-dependency relationship.
It is essential to note that the identity clashes dynamics projected across the strategic interest space depends in its evolution on the manner the following favourable causes should be taken into account:
– a lack of political, economical, religious and ethnic-cultural homogeneity, which calls for programs and strategies of long lasting specific development by an effective valorification of the local and regional resources;
– the regional and power unbalances require collective and harmonizing solutions, establishing the European, zone, and regional institutional responsibilities, for a statal and supra-statal management with the purpose of regional development.
One single regional or even global actor cannot effectively to handle the entire array of topics and aspects and mostly it could not stand the political -economical – military pressures and interests swarming outside the reference zone.
– reducing the development offset between regions, securing the access to education, implementation of policies concerning human rights and the norms of the civic culture in community, concomitant with the promotion of cohesion and social mobilization, the reconstruction of the communitary spirit, legal protection of the fundamental rights, represent as many instruments in the hands of the decision makers to be construed as programmatic and inter-dependent efforts for prevention of identity clashes with social, political and general implications.
– the lack of true reforms, of the local administrative capabilities, of the a development of civil society and its involvement in projects and programs on implementation of formal/non formal dialogue, of tolerance and inter-cultural and inter-religious dialogue, the failure to secure the rights for minorities and encouraging of secessionist trends or the development of some forms of economic autonomy, based on the ethnic criterion as a result of the lowering the degree of statal involvement in fair processes of tightly woven development of the society and resource fair-share.
Special Features of the Identity Clashes. The geo-economic component and sociologic aspects – in the context of globalization and the EU dynamics.
It is unanimously accepted for a fact that in the member states of the European Union there is a heterogeneity status, both where the economic-social development is concerned , and with regard to their respective political approaches. So much for the integration belongs as well to what was about to exceed the Ricardian vision on the world’s economy. However, one may find that the Ricardian model applies without distinctions between nations which forms an out of the borders commercial flow, be it just a simple international trading exchange, or else if one proceeds to a customs office union, as lower phase of the economic integration.
The integration may mean less some international assembly, but rather a regional process instead, which, since the structural and regional development political instrument is missing, there is some risk of uneven developments and further disintegration, so that the European Union as a power centre shall act like a macro-economy where the component regions shall be heterogenic, the unique market and the competition, declared as its main objectives, shall crash into the modern economy of today, their perfect opposite, in fact – the mixed economy, of the authoritarian interventionism.
From this viewpoint were projected and are still projecting various development models, and the solutions cannot be but global, based on co-ordination and co-operation, the autarchic trends being utterly unrealistic and inefficient.
According to some researches done by experts in their fields, the EU expansion bound to the Central Eastern Europe countries incurs a hightening of regional disparities, with implications on cohesive policies at both European and regional levels. That’s why a series of specialists propose an evaluation of the new theories such as: the new theory on commerce, the new economical geography, the foreign direct investment theory.
Factors, such as technologies, salaries and the proximity to the industrial centres in the regions with geostrategic importance and the EU markets, contribute to an explanation of the economic geography in the new member states. Some surveys reveal the fact that the markets integration multiplied the divergent forces, therefore leading to heightening or regional disparities in Hungary, for instance. The same surveys highlight the fact that the process of internationalization and structural change is expected to favour the metropolitan zones and the Westward regions, as well the regions having a strong industrial base or the countries closed to the East-West border.
In the context of economic integration getting in the thick, as a perpetual process, a territorial re-arrangement process is taking place, where the role of the obsolete national borders grow dimmer. The phenomenon and the process was concept-cast as ‘border spiritualization.’ So the complexity of the Euroatlantic international relationships, Euro-American, Euro-Asian and European, the politic-economic inter-dependence of the states, zones and regions become, inside the globalization frame, an irreversible process.
The displacement of the production means is resented especially where they are leaving, yet even the destination of this drift inside the EU is getting ,,the new economic geography model”- region of the industrial cluster union, in opposition to the other regions, pushed on to the ,,periphery”, being manifest at work centripetal forces and those centrifuge – from the negative competition. However, this geo-economic context should not be ideology-clad. The world polarization is real, and the risk it should generate identity conflicts on the background of the its clad-in-ideology, is real, this having a known precedent in history.
The traditional division,, poor / rich ”, be it generations or social classes, against a rather tight-doctrine backdrop, has borne for a while, a Marxist and Catholic dimension, widely spread and propagated by both statal forces and the sectarian entities of even the criminal organizations which ideologically care exploited the social-economic status of unfavoured categories. The economically ,,resurrected” societies, are based on pragmatism, while those underdeveloped, pauperized are far too much addicted to ideology, without solutions though, nor some degree of social cohesion and mobilization.
The trend to progressively elimination of the economic barriers between states heightens the need for security, in the context of discouragement of the identity clashes, the external threats being coupled with internal depreciative and worsening factors, stimulated by strategic political mistakes, institutional and social instability.
The new political-economic realities throughout South-Eastern Europe enforce the following directions of action: long lasting development, economic and energetic security, the development of the border zone infrastructure, the continuity of the economic reforms, both institutional and structural, fighting the organized crime, decentralization the resources at the centre, locally, the valorification of the intellectual capital, the stimulation of the private initiative, provide social security and not in the last place the building up of the facilities and institutions with innovative character, by valorification of the human and technological wealth.
From the geopolitical viewpoint, the European security and co-operation is under menace of global threats of external type, competition and confrontation between the geo-economic zones being some of them, however one should not underestimate the domestic danger factor, the reactivation of extremist ideological forces which incur axiological mutations and power games with long term strategic impact.
The change of civilization status obliges us at conceptual level, to operate from a multi-dimensional perspective.
The necessity to lay foundation for a new strategy for reaching a global security derives from the theoretical and practical hypothesis of energizing the inter-dependences, interactions and implicitly of the ever increasing of the asymmetrical threats, risk factors at the world level and of the identity clashes across the global anomic state background, in the context of global transition.
The mankind crosses a historical individualization process, the perfect reverse of uniformization, from which the institutions were born.
The institutions and the static concepts are made obsolete in front of the brand new life mode, highly energetic, increasingly individualized and under the global trends of administrative decentralization, social – economic self-administration by way of creation of some autonomous communities based on promotion of network-type structures, multi-mesh, anti-authoritarian, anti-hierarchic and polycentric in some special cases.
The concepts of this type which push to re-shape the world the way we know it, originate in a libertarian vintage and were amended at the time of their heydays by the Reagan Administration (1984).
At the same time, the sociologists insist on the ‘worldwide turbulence’ concept or ‘anomic status’ when they mean global anarchy.
In other words, the denial-of-AUTHORITY phenomenon, denial of any kind of order and heteronomous connections, slowly looms ahead up to an objective reality, and this would rather become a historical-conceptual base for claiming of the driving forces at the roots of generation of the new identity clashes, the axiological and behaviour action code in global space.
Globalization, however is challenging our judgment with two main aspects: social autonomy and losing the executive decision making control, from those institutions labelled as „obsolete paradigm” on individuals and mostly on sub-statal, subversive, interest-based groups, which may lead to up-grow of some erratic power centres, autarchic, ready to fuel both the local egoisms and global plutocracies, the supra-statal entities, and to change the democratic balances, and therefore jeopardizing the regional security, and inter-regional, respectively.
The insecurity sources may be multiple, since the global togetherness accomplished by way of pluralist forms of co-operation commencing from the integrative component of economic togetherness, social and international politics, being rather machinistic and arbitrary would lead rather not to gradual cultural, psychological , social, political and moral-religious dissolution, cleavage and fragmenting, but on the contrary, to their reinforcement.
This is why the security awareness culture, the multiculturalism, the intercultural dialogue, negotiation, the bolstering of the control mechanisms, communication and of social justice inner workings, and also the defensive discouragement, may lead to hedging of the identity clashes. It should be understood that a democratic society does not exclude the control, as the social control is a juridical sociology concept, pointing at the same time the passage from the state’s purely political control to the Control’s Society.
Far from being a failure, the multiculturalism knows a profound and remarkable revival from a non formal viewpoint.
The transfer of the state’s executive authority from the unique, central level to the micro-societal local level may generate risks for the social and statal security of each national entity, especially because any potential source is exploited by a rampant, fiercely competing power, the potential relative offsets being readily speculated and capitalized across all the interested segments by the special interests groups and entities.
All these facts lead to a mistaken re-share of power, the administrative capacity not being reinforced, but on the contrary, disintegrated by autarchic, anarchic or centrifugal factors and, mostly, especially and mainly in those zones where operate groups led by oligarchic rules, which parasite on the social system.
The sociologists are somewhat right regarding the global anomic status (‘worldwide turbulence’), under the conditions of society polarization, of popping up of new identity groups, new political values, social and cultural, which clash and engage themselves in opposition with the traditional values of the ,,old” world.
All these aspects actually show in fact a change of the civilization status, implicitly of the social-historical landmarks’ parameters.
The anomic status urges the achievement of the political and historical must: from CHAOS to ORDER.
The anarchy which signifies a state of deny-of-law, is the result of autonomy degeneration which represents the Law an individual or an organized community of people issue to themselves by their own free will.
Today mankind is in transit from heteronomy, that is from the Law in-coming from outside to autonomy, as a natural follow-up of the globalization process, of late-breaking thought values and of the historical process of individualization en-route we have mentioned above.
The road to new conflicts
The identity clashes scored the history of the last 10-20 years with popping up of several conflicts (even armed ones) – of an inter-ethnic, separatist nature but also some new types of identity clashes, came in the package with the progressive deepening of the differences between neighbours and the rebuke of compatibility-tuning process at the newly hatched NATO frontier.
As to the global situation the following solutions for further prevention and eradication of the identity clashes are mandatory: the pursuance of inter-statal and inter-religious dialogue, the preservation of the multiculturalism and the identity of each nation as it is, the long lasting development, financing the building of new democratic institutions, the bolstering and enhancement of the administrative power’s efficiency, removing the legal and power vacuum, the creation of social control mechanisms, the proactive fight against corruption and the global/regional anomy, the creation of area security complex on a partnership based on inter/intra-regional (statal) dialogue and co-operation, on full observance of both majority and minority rights and liberties bereft of any positive or negative discrimination whatsoever and not at last the promotion of the security awareness culture.
Also it is required to further keep using legal, military and economic enforcement for keeping at bay the stray groups which threat the regional and global security.
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By Sebastian Sarbu.
Abstract. Starting from approaching the aspects of globalism, technological, economical and cultural progress of the contemporary world, the paper focuses on the reconfiguration of the strategic interests of the power hot spots (or power poles), the latest breaking brand new emergent power poles, the dogfight for supremacy in the political initiative issue, on the strategic dominance from both economic and technologic angles.
The geopolitical approaches and the security and defense mainstay concepts are introduced from the specific standpoint of each school of strategy in both European and Asian space.
The asymmetric menaces on security and the development of the states, the clash for resources as seen in the context of the world wide raging crisis today, the budding of new power spots in the making, gauged against the global framework, lead to extra boosting the head-on confrontation and competition among the mighty powers of the world, to reshaping accordigly their strategic stands but also to a post-globalization updated world order.
Keywords: globalism, strategic reconfiguration, multi-polar world, strategic partnership, Rimland, strategies, resources, power hotspots, new world order.
The world at large, with its huge progress in technology, civilization, culture, information and economics, is ground and torn apart by mighty contradictions, strong challenges, much too obvious discrepancies, where the various hues in progress and of protest against the very side effects of this very progressive trend are vectors which, as they move away, do tighten the string raising the stress level, the crisis spots and the overall conflict status.
In these conditions, a complicated brawl is currently under way on redraw the power poles, to gain and maintain both political and strategic “upper hand” , on these grounds and also on the top notch nanotechnology, of the strategic dominant load. Today are widely used the so called strategic partnerships, which develop themselves in a new formula of blending the interests and prevent the major conflicts between the leading players, between the nuclei around which coagulate or re-coagulate the major power poles: the United States of America, Germany, The European Union, Russia, China, Japan, India, the Arab World.
The strategies these nuclei use are highly similar, since their policies are alike – at least where the wish, the will power and the ability are concerned and put to work joining the best efforts to a proper, strategic reconfiguration of the entire world as we know it – a thing which leads, in some way to the creation and maintaining of a safe environment where mass destruction weapons are tightly checked and high intensity conflicts and wars are forestalled.
The American School of Strategy# – which basically is, global as scope, thorough, experiment-based and pragmatic – highlights the staggering complexity of war as phenomenon, studies the low, medium and high intensity wars and, in the wake of the dramatic event experienced on September 11, 2001, is introducing a brand new political and strategic concept – the war against terrorism – which is, both in its underlying philosophy, and in its theoretical and pragmatic setup – a new type of confrontation and root of the fundamental concept of the XXIst century – the perpetual war.
The German School of Strategy# sticks to its European tradition and, of course, its German vintage.
After Mid Europe recasting in a new mold, Germany still maintains a classic stand on defence and security, based on nation’s own responsibility and a proper readiness status. This concept “perpetual war”, not to be found explicitly in the German doctrine, is spectacularly manifested in Germany’s own policy and strategy (and even mostly so, in Germany’s economy). At the same time, albeit it is not quite aligned to the globalisation process, Germany proactively is promoting a pan-European policy, coaching, as the Europe Union’s main engine (but as a leading economic and military power as well) a strategic partnership with Russia, which so re-fuels the Mackinder’s fears way back in 1904-1943, about a huge Eurasian power pole in the making, having as its nuclei Germany and Russia.
The EU strategy emerging from both the joint European security policy and joint European security and defense policy (PECSA), rather is not focused entirely on the perpetual war, but just on some of its features only, especially those generating actions and missions type Petersberg, addressing counterstrikes against terrorism issues, fighting against drug lines and organized criminality, doing humanitarian deeds, actions such as those triggered by natural calamitis and catastrophes or in some civil and military emergencies. The priority with the EU strategists is represented, in a first stage, by the completion of all the necessary prerequisites aimed to establish the de facto continental unity, solving the economical, political, social, ethnical problems, managing the crises and conflicts the type of those which already occurred and still are developing within the ex-Yugoslavian space and in other hot spots also.
On the other hand the Russian Strategy School did not relinquish and shall never relinquish its major force field lines, resulting from the very Russia’s own character of grand Eurasian power and from the specific data and resources of its territory. Russia is the largest country in the world, it is the repository of huge amounts of ores and natural reserves and has at its command a tremendously powerful, material, human, cultural and military potential. Russia has its own special projection where the war strategy is concerned, emerging straight from the sheer immensity of its space, form long time experience, from its own geostrategic location and, obviously, from the role it assumes and plays in building and shaping #of the new world order, in re-configuration of the power poles.
The Chinese Strategy School, emerging from antiquity, from Sun Tzu, surfaced with a unique dynamics not known before, especially where the potential strategies are concerned. China wishes for itself to be perceived as a regional power, with a decisive role in the configuration of a stable secure environment in the East and the Pacific, a vantage position allowing to prevent the acts of war, the proper management of its own proprietary space, the settling the Taiwan based issues and in the economic development. China is a highly stable country and, at the same time, a mighty power on both the heartland#, and rimland#, a focal point of civilization, an ancient culture, playing an important role in the shaping out the global security strategic environment (but different in nature from the US, the European Union and the Russian roles).
The Japanese School of Strategy, albeit emerging from about the same area and the same civilization as the Chinese is not based on the same principles however. Since they are lacking natural resources the Japanese developed a strategy with efficiency and perseverance, ambush and wait and at its core. After the World War II, Japan did not let itself deterred and overwhelmed by the effect of the two nuclear strikes over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but moved on to building up of some strategies which, basically, do not differ much from those applied in times of war. Only they were transferred/translated in the field of electronics and the nanotechnology, that is the potential strategies.
The development and implementation of these potential strategies seem contradictory against the actual resources, however the Japanese solved this paradox by another paradox: from what you don’t have build a power factor and from what you do have build a generation and sustaining factor for that power.
The Indian School of Strategy# actually is paying tribute to the great Indian culture, influenced by the diversity of this ancient civilization, and also internally driven by the urge and will power of India to make itself a power pole on the rimland, mostly in South East Asia. In this regard the Indian School of Strategy is promoting a series of principles heavily influenced by the Indian culture’s own ways, habits and values and , equally so, by the modern military trends, theories and practices, mostly British and American.
The Arabic School of Strategy is not unitary neither, flexible nor compromise prone. It is based on a contradictory concept, sometimes odd enough, other times a keeper of great values.
The onset of the third millennium anticipates massive changes in the historical development of the great powers of the world. The geopolitical events during the last decade stand proof that the directions and development trends of the new world order were henceforth set and trumpeted. Out of a split country, Germany re-united, turning itself as the economic “engine” of the Europe. The ex-Russian empire shred to pieces, and its inheritor, the Russian Federation, was “degraded” from the superpower rank to ‘big power’ only.
Out of a buttress of the hard and pure communism, China emerged like a socialist – capitalist breed of a country, while the main European players, such as the Great Britain, France and Germany struggle to find a new shape for the European New Order, as a counterpart to the Eurasian space. After an economic recess Japan comes back in full force, struggling based on the capacities it has developed to date to impose itself as a large military power also. As of the United States of America, reaping the vantage points scored under a both functional and pragmatic democrat system, driven by a high performing and efficient economy, bolstered by quite impressive financial and military funds, with no matching competition looming ahead, took the pole position as the only actual superpower – or megapower – term coined by some outstanding analysts and politologs.
The current trends apparent in the surfacing and acknowledgment of the new power poles just make the direct consequences of the events (or ‘situations’) occurred within the secured environment.
The sequence of events in the aftermath of the ’90 highlighted that no other power in the world, be it even a nuclear power, could take no large scale political- economic or military initiatives without the prior agreement and sometimes US assistance. Today, the US detain a prominent position in the world, and the economic and security crisis trigger extra boost in the defense policy and re-configure the US strategic interests world wide.
The Gulf War and the military actions in ex Yugoslavia and Afghanistan statistically proved that US payload in these operations exceeds 80% while the employed technology, weapons and logistics represented military capacities so sophisticated and expensive that the other allies simply cannot afford just yet. Beyond the rivalries prone to menace its safety and the world’s Washington D.C. does not aim to enforce its vision on this topic. The United States of America are the one and only power “capable to intervene anytime anywhere it so wishes to, at all times when its interests are affected”. The joint internationalism doctrine, issued during the US president George Bush ticket, acknowledges the right of the US to intervene in any state which violates the democracy, the human rights and the principles of civil rights.
In order to fulfil its strategic aims, the USA proactively seek to further reinforce the bridge foot as set in a united Europe, by an authentic transatlantic partnership, so that this Europe, in due course of expansion, to be able to become a better and more viable jumping board to project throughout the Eurasia the new world order. The relatively recent “robust” extension of the NATO, from the Baltic Sea through the Black Sea flags the US concern to control the edge area or the Eurasia’s “maritime border”, starting with Finland and the Scandinavian countries, goes down to Poland, Romania, Turkey and Georgia, embracing the Near East and India zones and closing up with the Mongolia, China and Japan territories. The Eurasia’s maritime border, or as the theoreticians called it “Rimland”, represents today the very essence of the global power. The one who rules the Rimland rules the Eurasia, and the one who rules Eurasia holds in his hands the destiny of the entire world.
Although it is obvious that no other country on the globe could not claim yet any responsibility for division of power and responsibilities with the US, the contest for control and the management bearing highly significant geopolitical and geostrategic connotations, and mostly the Euroasiatic space, is getting momentum and currently gets more fierce and acute.
Across the globe coalitions are being drawn up with the purpose of forestalling the US from ruling supreme. Highly relevant in this line are the alliance of China and Russia, and the increasingly obvious wish for independence of the Europe which, mostly France and Germany, turn less and less an ally configured now more like a competitor against the general backdrop of the spectacular congestion of the anti-globalization movement.
Against this background of USA dominant and prominent might, during the next decade the European Union looming now shall emerge with enhanced resolution, as a political, economic, cultural and even military main driver, as a stability and progress factor able to promote its own options and interests.
Even if among its initial targets set out at the time of EU creation was listed the point of turning the continent into a military superpower able to talk from peer to peer with the US, to be able to manage both its own crisis and the hotspots in the neighbourhood, to involve itself and have a say in the world politics, however, not even one of the member countries was eager, at least just yet, to bolster the amounts due to the military budget, which would be required to hit that target. This thing incurs as a consequence enlarging the gap between the proprietary military capacities against the US military assets and a due delay on hitting that particular mark as proposed, for a while.
The drift to a multipolar world would last for a long time, and the international community shall experience, probably, a deep set reconfiguration, where the global and regional integration shall coexist next to the contradictory trend of the world fragmentation and hierarchy-based constructs. While the globalism makes almost improbable a war among the major powers, the amplification of the asymmetric risks such as the terrorism, organized crime and the proliferation of the mass destruction weapons increasingly often generate conflict prone issues.
However it is still not ruled out a possible linear East-West confrontation focused on the restructuring the globalism and the creation of a post globalisation world scheme, entirely based on other new structures and values tuned and updated to the shifts, to the third millennium requirements respectively. Due to the condition of rapidly depletion of the natural resources, simultaneously with the aggressive demographic boom, the battle for the strategic resources was left the most mainstay reason for sparking conflicts.
The fight for these shall grow fierce, and the countries regrouping, sub-tiered depending on their own interests around the newly emerged power poles shall develop more clearly so. Probably we’ll be eye witnesses to the rise and building the pressure in these centres with the purpose of capturing in their sphere of influence of as many countries as possible in order to jostle for a best vantage position in the new world order scale.This configuration shall be tailored by interests, by the capacity of knowledge, by the amount and quality of the data, by the technological power and the access to the resources. It is also possible to witness the structural modifications in some states, due to multiple causes such as economic, demographic, religious, but also due to the general trend of keying down the national leading role of the states, to the asymmetric menaces against their security and development.
Among the prominent power vectors already emerged and clearly configured, the USA and the EU on one side, China and Japan on the other side, to which increasingly obvious Russia shall join, competition and confrontation relationships shall develop, while the crystallisation of the possible new power poles is under way: the United States of the Europe and the Far Asia.
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